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不同认知成分在图形推理测验项目难度预测中的作用
其他题名The Role of Different Cognitive Components in the Prediction of the Figural Reasoning Test's Item Difficulty
李中权1; 王力1; 张厚粲1; 周仁来1
2011
发表期刊心理学报
ISSN0439-755X
文章类型期刊论文
卷号43期号:9页码:1087-1094
产权排序2
摘要理解项目难度变异的来源是实现计算机自动化项目生成的第一步。通过文献综述,总结出影响图形推理测验项目难度的四个方面的因素,再通过操控构图元素熟悉性、属性的抽象性、知觉组织的和谐性以及规则类型与数目这些因素,编制8套图形推理测验,共包含112个与高级瑞文推理类似的项目。采用铆测验等值设计,在每套测验中嵌入10个高级瑞文推理测验项目为铆题,通过网络施测于6323名被试。使用BILOGMG估算项目参数,并使用IRTEQ进行测验等值,将后七套测验上所有项目的项目参数都转换到第一套测验的单位系统上。以项目难度为因变量,项目题干特征变量为预测变量进行回归分析,结果发现这四个因素均对项目难度有显著预测作用。优势分析的结果显示记忆负荷(即规则类型与数目的组合)是项目难度的最重要的预测变量,其他依次为属性的抽象性、知觉组织的和谐性和构图元素熟悉性。; Figural reasoning tests(as represented by Raven's tests) are widely applied as effective measures of fluid intelligence in recruitment and personnel selection.However,several studies have revealed that those tests are not appropriate anymore due to high item exposure rates.Computerized automatic item generation(AIG) has gradually been recognized as a promising technique in handling item exposure.Understanding sources of item variation constitutes the initial stage of Computerized AIG,that is,searching for the underlying processing components and the stimuli that significantly influence those components.Some studies have explored sources of item variation,but so far there are no consistent results.This study investigated the relation between item difficulties and stimuli factors(e.g.,familiarity of figures,abstraction of attributes,perceptual organization,and memory load) and determines the relative importance of those factors in predicting item difficulities.Eight sets of figural reasoning tests(each set containing 14 items imitating items from Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrics,APM) were constructed manipulating the familiarity of figures,the degree of abstraction of attributes,the perceptual organization as well as the types and number of rules.Using anchor-test design,these tests were administrated via the internet to 6323 participants with 10 items drawing from APAM as anchor items;thus,each participant completed 14 items from either one set and 10 anchor items within half an hour.In order to prevent participants from using response elimination strategy,we presented one item stem first,then alternatives in turn,and asked participants to determine which alternative was the best.DIMTEST analyses were conducted on the participants' responses on each of eight tests.Results showed that items measure a single dimension on each test.Likelihood ratio test indicated that the data fit two-parameter logistic model(2PL) best.Items were calibrated with BILOG-MG 3.0(marginal maximum likelihood estimation and 2PL model) and displayed good item difficulties and discriminations.In order to make items from different sets comparable,item parameters were equated using the IRTEQ(Stocking and Lord's Test Characteristic Curve approach) with the scale of set one as the reference.The 2×2×2 between group ANOVA showed two main effects for degree of abstraction of attributes and perceptual organization(p 0.05),while the main effect for familiarity of figures as well as all interaction effects were not significant.Regression analysis indicated that memory load,abstraction of attributes,perceptual organization and familiarity of figures could significantly predict item difficulty and dominance analysis revealed that memory load(i.e.the combination of types and number of rules) was the most important predictor.The present findings support several previous cognitive theories concerning figural reasoning problems in that working memory plays a key role in solving such kind of items.They also indicate that the degree of abstraction of attributes,the perceptual organization and the familiarity of figures also affect the processing components.Furthermore,a combination of those factors in item stems can predict item difficulties well.The findings are important for computerized AIG,because they enable us to generate new items with predicted item difficulties by manipulating those factors.However,as part of figural reasoning tests,distractors also have effects on item difficulties.The relationship between characteristics of distractors and item difficulties should be investigated to improve item generation algorithms for this kind of tests in the future.
关键词自动化项目生成 记忆负荷 属性抽象性 知觉组织 规则类型
学科领域认知心理学 ; 心理测量
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者南京大学文科校级规划项目 ; 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室(北京师范大学)开放课题基金资助
CSCD记录号CSCD:4311088
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/14419
专题中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
通讯作者李中权
作者单位1.南京大学社会学院心理学系
2.中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室
3.北京师范大学心理学院应用实验心理北京市重点实验室
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GB/T 7714
李中权,王力,张厚粲,等. 不同认知成分在图形推理测验项目难度预测中的作用[J]. 心理学报,2011,43(9):1087-1094.
APA 李中权,王力,张厚粲,&周仁来.(2011).不同认知成分在图形推理测验项目难度预测中的作用.心理学报,43(9),1087-1094.
MLA 李中权,et al."不同认知成分在图形推理测验项目难度预测中的作用".心理学报 43.9(2011):1087-1094.
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