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汉语学龄前儿童正字法意识的发展
其他题名The Development of Orthographic Awareness in Chinese Preschool Children
钱怡1; 赵婧1; 毕鸿燕1
2013
发表期刊心理学报
通讯作者邮箱bihy@psych.ac.cn
ISSN0439-755X
文章类型期刊论文
卷号45期号:1页码:60-69
产权排序1
摘要本研究选择北京地区幼儿园3岁、4岁、5岁儿童各31、48、33名,采用单部件意识测验和部件位置及功能意识测验系统探查了学龄前儿童的正字法意识各个层面的发展状况。单部件意识测验包括部件替换、部件缺失和部件旋转三个部分;部件位置及功能意识测验分为假字和非字两个部分,而非字又包括两形非字和形声非字。结果发现单部件意识测验中,5岁组儿童在部件替换水平上的得分显著高于3岁组儿童,而3岁组与4岁组、4岁组与5岁组儿童之间无显著差异;部件缺失和部件旋转水平上,三个年龄段的儿童的得分表现出明显的增长趋势。部件位置及功能意识测验中,假字得分在三个年龄段之间无显著差异;非字得分随年龄增长显著提高。这些结果表明,单部件意识在学前期处于不断发展的阶段,其中对部件替换的非字的拒绝能力发展较早,部件缺失和部件旋转非字的拒绝能力发展较晚;部件位置及功能意识在学前期已经开始发展,3岁儿童已经具有假字符合正字法规则的认识,但对非字违反部件位置合法性和功能完整性的认识直到4岁左右才开始萌芽,5岁还未成熟。
其他摘要The emergent literacy opinion points that children's literacy develops before formal education. Orthographic awareness makes great contribution to Chinese literacy development, and it including three levels: the knowledge of characteristics of a single radical, legal position of a radical and combination rules of two radicals. The present study aimed to reveal the developmental pattern of preschool children's emergent literacy by investigating the development of orthographic awareness in Chinese preschool children systematically with two tests. Radicals are the basic units of Chinese character, so a single radical awareness test was conducted to explore the first level of orthographic awareness, in which children were asked to discriminate three types of non-characters: number replacement, a radical of this character was replaced by a number; radical absence, a radical of the character was missing; radical rotation, one radical of this character was inversed or reversed. The radical position and function awareness test using pseudo-characters and non-characters decision was designed to reveal the development of the latter levels of orthographic awareness. There were two types of non-characters with different structures, one consisting of two semantic radicals, and the other consisting of a semantic radical and a phonetic radical with illegal positions. We recruited 112 preschool children, who fell into three age groups: 3-year-olds, 4-year-olds, and 5-year-olds, respectively consisting of 31, 48 and 33 children. All participants completed both tests. The results of the single radical awareness test showed similar developmental patterns in the radical-absent and radical-rotated non-characters, the scores increased significantly with age; as to the scores of radical-replaced non-characters, significant difference only appeared between 3-year-old children and 5-year-old children. In the radical position and function awareness test, there were no significant differences across age groups in the scores of pseudo-characters, while the scores of non-characters significantly increased with age. Particularly, scores of non-characters with two semantic radicals were significantly higher than non-characters with a semantic radical and a phonetic radical for all three groups. The scores in the two tests were significantly correlated, and thescores in the single radical awareness test were consistently higher than that in radical position and function awareness test for each group children. Results of the single radical awareness test revealed developed in the preschool period. The discrimination in that children's single radical awareness constantly radical-replaced non-characters developed earlier, however, rejection to radical-rotated characters developed later, revealing the development speed varied across aspects of radical knowledge. The knowledge about radical's special function as a script was acquired earlier, while recognition about special form of radical progressed later. Radical position and function awareness also developed in preschool children. Three-year-old children could realize that pseudo-characters obeyed orthographic rules, but knowledge about irregularity of non-characters didn't emerge until 4 years old. Even though there was strong correlation between the single radical awareness and the radical position and function awareness, developmental pattern including developmental speed and order was different. The knowledge of a single radical developed earlier and more quickly than that of radical position and function.
关键词学龄前 汉字 部件位置 部件功能 正字法意识
学科领域心理语言学 ; 发展心理学
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-EW-J-8)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(30970910)资助研究.
CSCD记录号CSCD:4737444
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/14614
专题中国科学院行为科学重点实验室
通讯作者毕鸿燕
作者单位1.中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室
2.中国科学院大学
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GB/T 7714
钱怡,赵婧,毕鸿燕. 汉语学龄前儿童正字法意识的发展[J]. 心理学报,2013,45(1):60-69.
APA 钱怡,赵婧,&毕鸿燕.(2013).汉语学龄前儿童正字法意识的发展.心理学报,45(1),60-69.
MLA 钱怡,et al."汉语学龄前儿童正字法意识的发展".心理学报 45.1(2013):60-69.
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