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汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好
其他题名Attentional Bias for Word Learning—Mandarin-Speaking Infants' Discrimination of Persons,Actions,and Objects
陈杰1; 郑小蓓1; 孟祥芝1; Rachel Pulverman1; Twila Tardif1; 朱莉琪1
2012
发表期刊心理科学
通讯作者邮箱chenjie@psych.ac.cn
ISSN1671-6981
文章类型期刊论文
卷号35期号:4页码:786-792
产权排序4
摘要婴儿的动、名词词类学习存在跨文化差异,但是很少研究从注意偏好角度解释这类差异。本研究利用习惯化范式考察汉语婴儿在6-8个月和17-19个月时对事件中人物,动作和物体的区分。结果发现,6-8个月的婴儿仅能区分动作变化,对人物和物体无法区分,而17-19个月的婴儿对三类变化均可以区分。本研究提供了婴儿早期注意偏好发展的实验依据,同时为儿童早期单词获得提供了新的理论基础。
其他摘要Word learning requires establishing a mapping between words and concepts.Yet,even before this mapping process,children need to attend to and identify conceptual units from perceptual inputs.From an associative perspective,attention is the initial step of early word learning,and differences in attentional patterns could play a role in language acquisition and development.English learners typically show vocabularies that are dominated by nouns,while studies reveal that verbs are acquired early and in large quantities by Mandarin Chinese learners.However,little research has examined whether English and Mandarin leamers'early comprehension and production of nouns and verbs could be attributed to attentional patterns.Thus,the interest for the present study is whether we will find fundamental differences in attentional patterns to complex scenes across developmental spans.In particular,we are interested in how the process of word learning may interact with attention among children who have not yet begun this process(i.e.6 month olds) vs.children who are in the middle of an explosive phase of early vocabulary development(i.e.18-month-olds). In this study,we explore Mandarin-learning infants'abilities to discriminate among persons,actions,and objects in both silent and word-learning environments.Infants were randomly assigned to a habituation scene,in which a videotaped event of a young woman performing a novel action on a novel object was presented to infants in a habituation paradigm.Once they were bored,the infants were presented with four test trials,in which none(control trial) or one of the three elements changed(person Change,action change,object change) with the other two held consistent with the habituation.The infants'looking time was calculated on-line by a live experimenter who was blind to the stimuli appearing on the screen and coded the infant's eye movement through a curtain hole. These studies aim to further investigate the cognitive mechanism underlying word-to-world mapping.Some researchers have provided the evidence that Mandarin-speaking infants only learn word-action associations but not word-object associations.Not only could the present study help clarify and complement the previous findings,but also it contributes to the theoretical framework of word learning as a development process manifested at multiple levels.The current studies also provided the evidence in both the developmental changes in infants'attentional patterns.Overall,6-to 8-month olds could discriminate different actions,paying more attention to action change than control,but not different objects.In contrast,for the 17-to 19-month olds,they paid more attention to all change trials than control.
关键词词汇学习 名词优势 注意偏好 动作 客体
学科领域心理语言学 ; 发展心理学
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者国家自然科学基金(31070917) ; NIH基金(HD060139-01A1)的资助
CSCD记录号CSCD:4653883
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/14615
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
通讯作者陈杰
作者单位1.密西根大学心理系
2.北京大学心理系
3.德拉维尔州立大学心理系
4.中国科学院心理研究所
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陈杰,郑小蓓,孟祥芝,等. 汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好[J]. 心理科学,2012,35(4):786-792.
APA 陈杰,郑小蓓,孟祥芝,Rachel Pulverman,Twila Tardif,&朱莉琪.(2012).汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好.心理科学,35(4),786-792.
MLA 陈杰,et al."汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好".心理科学 35.4(2012):786-792.
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