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守范?失范?——作为参照点的社会规范对决策行为的影响
其他题名Compliance or Anomie: The Effect towards the Decision making Behaviors from Social Norms as Reference Points
陈慧1,2; 刘扬1,2; 曾垂凯3; 孙彦1
2015
发表期刊心理科学
通讯作者邮箱suny@psych.ac.cn
ISSN1671-6981
文章类型期刊论文
卷号38期号:1页码:408-413
摘要作为参照点的社会规范指个体为实现群体目标保持活动一致性所建立起来的、视为决策与判断标准的规范。社会规范研究经历了从完全理性到有限理性的转变过程。其对决策行为影响的解释机制包括预期理论、后悔理论、"齐当别"抉择模型、程数说和三参照点理论等,能较好解释避税、见死不救与医患冲突等现象。今后研究注意结合社会认知角度,实现研究思想与范式的转变,侧重探索多重参照点、群体决策机制,丰富跨文化研究等,为转型期的守范与失范行为提供科学的解释。
其他摘要A reference point refers to an underlying reference standard that individuals use to judge and evaluate the decision options. Usually, it can be the individual habit or social norms and customs or the level of personal expectations or aspirations. Because of the universality and stability as features of the reference point, it may explain why biased and irrational decision-making behaviors occur. In addition to the reference point used by individuals, there is another kind of reference point which emerges from the agreement between an individual and the group. In this paper, the social norm as the reference point refers to the norms used by people as the standards for decision-making and judgment in order to realize the group goals and maintain stability of the group activities. The research on decision-making behaviors has gone through a process from unbounded rationality to bounded rationality. This paper emphasized the explanation mechanism of social norms under bounded rationality, namely, prospect theory, regret theory, the equate-to-differentiate model, route and tri-reference point theory (TRP). The descriptive decision theories listed above give a sound explanation of the phenomena of social anomie such as tax avoidance, status quo bias, medical dispute relations and the over medicalization. It can offset the insufficient explanation of anomie made by the normative decision theories under the unbounded rationality. For example, it can use the prospect theory to explain the behavior of tax avoidance, because people consider tax avoidance as a reference point. In other words, paying taxes is equal to a loss. To avoid the pain of loss, people tend to evade taxation. According to the route, tax refund will encourage people to pay taxes it is because the psychological feeling of tax refund is stronger than the psychological feeling of taxation. These theories also help us to guide the individual to comply with social norms. Hence the reference point plays an important role in solving the symptoms of anomie. Besides, there are some other factors that cause the compliance and anomie behaviors of individuals, namely, attention, need for cognitive closure, mood, cultural differences and behaviors of others. However, researches rarely consider social norms as reference points. Future research of reference point is expected to focus on the following aspects. First of all, it is the transformation between research ideas and paradigms. Secondly, in-depth exploration of the multiple reference points mechanism and influence factors. Thirdly, researchers will expand the scope and objects of study to include the cross-culture and the internet anomie.The research may provide much more scientific and rational explanations of the compliance and anomie behaviors towards social norms during the transformation period.
关键词参照点 决策行为 社会规范 失范
学科领域社会心理学
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者国家自然科学基金委项目(71001098) ; 中国博士后科学基金面上资助项目(2013M530543) ; 中国博士后科学基金特别资助项目(2014T70044) ; 中科院重点项目(KJZD-EW-L04)
CSCD记录号CSCD:5427503
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/14899
专题中国科学院行为科学重点实验室
通讯作者孙彦
作者单位1.中国科学院心理研究所行为科学重点实验室
2.中国科学院大学
3.浙江财经大学工商管理学院
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈慧,刘扬,曾垂凯,等. 守范?失范?——作为参照点的社会规范对决策行为的影响[J]. 心理科学,2015,38(1):408-413.
APA 陈慧,刘扬,曾垂凯,&孙彦.(2015).守范?失范?——作为参照点的社会规范对决策行为的影响.心理科学,38(1),408-413.
MLA 陈慧,et al."守范?失范?——作为参照点的社会规范对决策行为的影响".心理科学 38.1(2015):408-413.
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