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谣言传播的影响因素及动机机制研究述评
其他题名A review of influencing factors and motivation mechanisms of rumor spreading
赵娜1; 李永鑫1; 张建新1
2013
发表期刊心理科学
通讯作者邮箱zhangjx@psych.ac.cn
ISSN1671-6981
文章类型期刊论文
卷号36期号:4页码:965-970
产权排序1
摘要谣言是指一种据称真实但未经证实的普遍流传的说法。谣言会通过社会成员之间的信息传递而影响公众的态度和行为。谣言在传播过程中,既受到个体水平上的认知和情绪变量的影响,也受到群体变量及情境变量的影响。个体传播谣言的心理动机包括寻求事实、关系提升和自我提升。谣言在突发公共事件(自然灾害、事故灾难、公共卫生事件、社会安全事件等)中具有很大的破坏性。未来的研究需要进一步探查影响谣言传播的群体因素,从群体动力学的角度探究谣言传播的心理机制,并考虑谣言在突发社会事件中传播的特征。
其他摘要The spreading of rumors is a very common phenomenon in social life as an informal channel of exchanging information. It can affect the attitude and behavior of the public as the information spreads among people. The study of rumors dates back to hundreds of years ago,when the rumor transmission was what most researchers were concerned about. With the development of network and the involvement of varieties of media,not only has the content of rumors per se changed,but the mode of transmission,the speed and breadth of the rumors have also undergone tremendous changes. The purpose of this article is to describe and summarize the study of rumors,which includes the generation,dissemination,and the social psychological mechanisms involved. Rumor is defined as something that is said to be true but lacks secure standards of evidence. There are essential differences among rumors,gossip and urban legend. The transmission of rumors is not passive. It involves rich dialogues,subjective viewpoints,inferring of meaning,and varieties of unspoken messages,all within the communication. The traits of specific groups and context are the two kinds of variables that significantly affect rumor transmission. When studying the spread of rumors,researchers pay most attention to anxiety,the desire for control,trust, ambiguity,and threats. One study that focused on explaining why these factors can influence rumor transmission indicated that fact finding,relationship enhancement and self-enhancement are the three most important underlying motivations of rumor transmission. When individuals are in a fuzzy and threatening context,rumors tend to be generated which often will have a very negative impact on the individual's life. With the development of the varieties of media,the internet and other communication technologies,both organizational managers and government officials face the rumor problem. Rumors can be destructive in public emergencies (natural disasters,accidents,disasters,public health emergencies,social events,etc. ) ,as they affect the public morale and easily lead to social chaos. What's important is that under the condition of modern information technology,the speed and scope of its breeding and spreading is difficult to predict. The emotions behind the generation and dissemination of rumors magnify and spread. In the modern information technology society,the controllability of rumor spreading will be extremely difficult,not to mention costly. Since the reform and opening up,the occurrence of major events in China has shown a rapid upward trend. Future studies should emphasize more on the relationship between the cluster-efficacy,trust and authority to explore how rumors lead to mass incidents. The similarities and differences among those who spread rumors are expected to reduce or even elim- inate the impact of individual behavior.
关键词谣言 谣言传播 心理因素 心理动机
学科领域社会心理学
URL查看原文
收录类别CSCD
语种中文
项目资助者科技部国家科技支撑计划课题(2013BAI08B02) ; 中国科学院心理健康重点实验室经费的资助
CSCD记录号CSCD:4915725
引用统计
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/15041
专题中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
通讯作者张建新
作者单位1.中国科学院心理研究所心理健康重点实验室
2.河南大学心理与行为研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵娜,李永鑫,张建新. 谣言传播的影响因素及动机机制研究述评[J]. 心理科学,2013,36(4):965-970.
APA 赵娜,李永鑫,&张建新.(2013).谣言传播的影响因素及动机机制研究述评.心理科学,36(4),965-970.
MLA 赵娜,et al."谣言传播的影响因素及动机机制研究述评".心理科学 36.4(2013):965-970.
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