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An investigation of the relationship between chronotype and mind wandering, including the influences of sleep quality and time-of-day
其他题名作息类型与走神的关系—睡眠质量与一天中不同时间段在其中的影响作用
Richard Carciofo
学位类型博士
导师张侃 ; 杜峰
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院心理研究所
学位授予地点北京
学位专业工程心理
关键词作息类型 走神 睡眠质量 一天的时间段 昼夜节律
摘要Human biological functioning and behaviour include regular, 24-hour circadian rhythms, 
such as shown in body temperature variation and the sleep-wake cycle. However, the expression of  these rhythms varies by chronotype: individual differences in time-of-day preference. Although  most people do not have strong preferences, morning-type people have relatively early rising and  bed times, and feel more alert in the morning, while evening-type people show relatively late  tendencies. Chronotype has been associated with a variety of cognitive, behavioural and personality  characteristics. One curious characteristic of the human mind is its propensity for wandering:  wandering away from an ongoing task, and away from the here and now. Mind wandering episodes  can be detrimental to task performance, and yet may also be a place where solutions to problems or  creative inspiration can be found; but, what relationship is there, if any, between chronotype and  mind wandering? Survey and experimental methods were used to address this question, with a  focus on the influences of sleep quality and time-of-day. A series of surveys with Chinese adults  (aged 18-87, total N > 2500) included the development of a short questionnaire to assess  chronotype, and new translations of several scales to assess mind wandering and related  phenomena. It was found that the frequency of mind wandering is associated with evening  chronotype: people who have a preference for rising and going to bed at relatively later times, and  who feel more alert later in the day, report more mind wandering. In addition, it was found that poor  sleep quality is a mediator in this relationship between eveningness and mind wandering; lower  positive affect and less conscientiousness were likewise found to be mediators. A moderation effect  was also shown whereby the negative correlation between mind wandering frequency and positive  affect was stronger in evening-types and neutral-types than in morning-types. Furthermore, some  evidence for an association between time-of-day and mind wandering was found. Survey results 
were mixed, with the majority of participants reporting no time-of-day variation in mind wandering  frequency, but many participants reported a peak in the afternoon. In addition, there was also some  support for a synchrony effect with more mind wandering at the non-preferred time-of-day  (morning for evening-types, and evening for morning-types). However, this effect was especially  strong in morning-types, and the corresponding peak in mind wandering during the evening could  also support the view that mind wandering is associated with the body temperature circadian  rhythm. The experimental research gave some further support for this. Participants completed a  sustained attention to response task (SART), and a vigilance task, each of which included thought- probes to assess mind wandering; an attentional blink (AB) task with a questionnaire assessment of  mind wandering was also undertaken. Participants completed these tasks twice, in a morning  session and an afternoon/evening session. A higher frequency of mind wandering in the  afternoon/evening was found in the SART, but this was not found in the vigilance or AB tasks,  suggesting that the nature of the task may be an influence on time-of-day variation in mind  wandering. Also, although no interaction between chronotype and time-of-day was found for the  overall frequency of mind wandering, there was some evidence for a synchrony effect for the  experience of involuntary autobiographical memories (morningness associated with reporting more  in the afternoon/evening, and eveningness associated with reporting more in the morning). Overall,  these studies demonstrate that there is a relationship between mind wandering and chronotype,  which involves mediation and moderation effects. Further research may extend the network of  related variables and elucidate the basis of their associations.
其他摘要人类的生理和行为(比如体温变化和睡眠-觉醒周期)遵循24 小时昼夜节律变化(circadian rhythms)规律。然而,个体的节律变化因作息类型(chronotype)不同而不同:不同个体对一天中不同时间段(time-of-day)的偏好不同。尽管大部分人对一天中的不同时间段并没有很强的偏好,但早睡早起型个体的起床与入寝时间都相对更早,并且在早晨/上午感觉更有精神;而晚睡晚起型个体的起床与入寝时间则相对更晚。作息类型与认知、行为和人格特质都有相关关系。走神(mind wandering)是人脑的一个非常有意思的特征之一:我们的思绪常会从正在进行的工作中或从现实生活中游离出去。走神可能会降低工作绩效,但也可能会因此而找到解决问题的方法,或产生一些创造性的灵感。那么,作息类型与走神是否有关系?及有什么样的关系?本论文采用问卷调查和实验室实验方法对这个问题进行了探讨,其中主要对睡眠质量和一天中不同时间段在走神与作息类型之间的调节或中介作用进行了研究。
1)问卷调查研究。问卷调查研究主要包括一份简短的作息类型调查问卷的编制,以及多个用来测量走神和相关现象量表的翻译,并用这些问卷和量表对中国成人(年龄为 18 至87 岁,调查样本大于2500 人)进行的一系列调查。结果发现:第一,晚睡晚起型个体走神现象更 为频繁:偏爱晚睡晚起的个体,或在下午/晚上觉得精神状态更好的个体,报告有更多的走神现象。另外,睡眠质量在走神与晚睡晚起类型之间起中介作用,即晚睡晚起型个体出现更为频繁的走神现象部分是因为他们的睡眠质量更差;正性情绪和尽责性在走神与晚睡晚起类型之间也起中介作用。并且,正性情绪在走神与作息类型之间起调节作用,即相对于早睡早起型,在晚睡晚起型和中间类型的个体中正性情绪与走神频率有更强的负相关。第二,有证据表明一天中不同时间段走神频率不同。问卷调查发现,大部分被试报告一天中不同时间段走神频率差不多,但是许多被试又称下午走神频率最高,所以结果看似有点不一致。然而,调查结果比较一致的表明在非偏好时间段走神频率最高 (早睡早起型晚上走神比较多,晚睡晚起型上午走神比较多)。这种现象在早睡早起型个体中表现最为强烈。这种晚上走神频率最高的现象支持了体温节律变化引发走神现象的观点。2)实验室实验研究。实验室实验研意反应任务 (sustained attention to response task, SART)、警觉任务,和注意瞬脱(attention blink, AB )任务。在前两项任务中设置了思想探测任务来测量走神现象,而在后一项任务中 则采用了问卷调查的方法来测量走神现象。被试需要在上午和下午/晚上分别完成这些任务两次。结果发现,在下午/晚上做SART 任务时有更多的走神现象,但在警觉任务或AB 任务中没有发现上午和下午的走神频率有差异,说明不同实验任务可能对走神现象的时间特点也会产生影响。另外,虽然没有发现作息类型与时间段的交互作用对走神频率的影响,但是者交互地影响不自主的自传性回忆现象(早睡早起型在下午/晚上有更多的自传性回忆,而晚睡晚起型在上午有更多的自传性回忆)。总之,本论文的一系列研究表明走神与作息类型之间存在相关关系,并且两者的关系之间还存在一些中介和调节变量。今后有必要进一步加深和加宽对走神、作息类型及其相关变量之间关系的研究。
学科领域工程心理
语种英语
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19484
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
Richard Carciofo. An investigation of the relationship between chronotype and mind wandering, including the influences of sleep quality and time-of-day[D]. 北京. 中国科学院心理研究所,2014.
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