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权力体验与判断准确性
其他题名Experience of power and judgmental accuracy
成年
学位类型硕士
导师李岩梅
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词权力 自信 词汇判断 客体归类 判断准确性
摘要权力指控制有价值资源以及他人行为结果的相对能力。研究发现,体验权力可提高个体对自己判断准确性的过分自信,促使人们对任务完成所需的时间做出更乐观的判断,也容易促使有权力者对他人采取刻板印象式的判断等。上述这些权力相关的研究虽并未直接探讨权力体验对个体判断准确性的影响,然而,因权力感激活而导致有权力者对自己判断的过分相信、对时间评估的偏差、对他人知觉的不全面均表明,体验权力很可能会影响个体的信息判断的准确性。
因此,本研究中,我们假设:1)体验权力会降低人们信息判断的准确性;2)体验权力可提升个体的自信;3)自信是权力体验与个体判断准确性间的中介变量。
为检验我们的假设,研究1,随机分配参与者接受不同的回忆任务(控制组,高权力),以参与者在词汇判断任务(lexical-decision making task)中对刺激材料(非权力词、权力词)做出正确判断的比率作为个体判断准确性的指标,并让参与者完成自信、状态权力感的自评式问卷,初步探讨权力体验对自信以及判断准确性的影响。结果显示,体验权力后,个体的状态权力感越高,则越自信,非权力词(如气体)的判断正确率也越低。进一步发现,自信中介了状态权力感与非权力词的判断正确率间的关系。
为进一步验证假设、保证实验结果的外部一致性,研究2,继续操作了个体的权力体验(低权力,控制组,高权力),以参与者在客体归类任务(object categorization task)中正确判断物体属性(自然物 vs. 人造物)的比率作为个体判断准确性的指标,并让参与者完成权力操作性检查、自信以及状态权力感的自评式问卷。结果显示,体验权力显著降低了男性对人造物做出正确判断的比率,体验权力也显著提高了个体的自信,不过,自信的中介效应并未被验证。
根据上述结果,我们认为体验权力确实会降低个体(尤指男性)的判断准确性,增加人们的自信,自信很可能是权力体验影响个体判断准确性的中介变量。
其他摘要Power refers to the ability to control valued resources and outcome of others without social interference. After experiencing power individuals became more confident in their judgment or estimates and more likely to stereotype others. It was also identified that experience of power can bias people’s estimates of time for completing a task. Building on these findings, we propose that the experience of power has a negative effect on one’s judgmental accuracy.
We predict that:
1): after experiencing power, individuals’ judgmental accuracy would be reduced;
2): powerful people would be more confident;
3): self-confidence would mediate the relationship between the experience of power and judgmental accuracy.
In study 1, with the lexical-decision making task, result showed that high-power participants’ sense of power significantly predicted the judgmental accuracy of words unrelated to power, with more sense of power lower judgmental accuracy of words unrelated to power. Powerful people became more confident. Finally it was found that for high power participants the self-confidence mediate the relationship between sense of power and judgmental accuracy of words unrelated to power.
In study 2, with object categorization task, result showed that male participants
primed with high-power was more likely to make mistakes when judging artificial words. This result suggested that experience of power leads to bad performance. It was also found that powerful participants were more confident. Unfortunately, the mediation effect of self-confidence was not supported.
In summary, the two studies revealed that higher power participants (especially for male) were less accurate in making simple judgments and were more confident. We maintained that probably self-confidence mediated the relationship between experience of power and judgmental accuracy.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19497
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
成年. 权力体验与判断准确性[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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