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个人主义在当代中国:文化变迁视角下的考察
Alternative TitleIndividualism in Contemporary China: Empirical Studies on Cultural Change
丰怡
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor蔡华俭
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword文化变迁 个人主义 独特性 独立我 文化产品
Abstract在当今任何一个社会,都存在着社会文化的变迁。近半个世纪以来,经济全球化与科学技术的快速发展带来了世界范围内的变化,使社会文化变迁研究越来越多地受到经济学家、社会学家、人类学家、历史学家、政治学家以及心理学家的关注。近五六十年来的中国在经济、社会、政治、文化等诸多领域都发生了翻天覆地的变化,尤其是人们的价值观变化明显,这对中国人的心理和行为都产生了巨大的影响。本文拟从文化心理学的角度对中国的个人主义变化进行研究,从而探索近五六十年来中国的社会文化变迁。
从文化心理学的角度来看,社会(文化)变迁研究主要是通过对不同时域(跨年代)下人们的心理与行为进行比较,从而揭示社会文化变迁对人们心理行为产生的影响,进而探究变迁过程中人们的心理状态和变化规律。目前对中国的社会文化变迁鲜有研究,本文在问卷调查的基础上,特别加入文化产品研究这一独特的研究视角,通过四个研究来考察中国人个人主义的变化情况。研究一通过问卷调查研究不同年代中国人的独特性,结果发现,人们自我报告的独特性随着出生年代的推移呈现出显著增长的趋势;研究二通过分析不同年代出生的人名探讨独特性的变化趋势,结果发现,中国人越来越倾向于取与众不同的名字,独特性随着年代的发展逐渐增强,这与研究一的结果相一致。研究三通过问卷调查研究不同年代中国人的自我独立性特点,结果发现,人们自我构念中的自我-他人关系随着年代的推移呈现出逐渐疏远的趋势,即独立我的特征日益明显;研究四通过分析不同年代下流行歌曲的歌词,探讨独立性在自我表达上的变化趋势,结果发现,歌词中包含越来越多与独立我相关的词,即自我表达中独立我的特征日益明显,这与研究三的结果相一致。以上四个研究从独特性和独立我两个角度分析了个人主义的变化趋势,体现了当代中国的个人主义逐渐增长的年代变化趋势。
该研究不仅丰富了文化心理学在社会文化变迁方面的研究成果,也验证了文化心理学需要同时关注“头脑内”和“头脑外”的部分,还对未来中国心理学的研究提供了理论参考和科学依据。
Other AbstractSocial and cultural change is widespread nowadays. In recent half a century, economic globalization and the rapid development of science and technology has brought great changes worldwide, stimulating wide interests to cultural change research from economists, sociologists, anthropologists, historians, politicians and psychologists. In the past fifty or sixty year, China has undergone great changes in economy, politic, culture and many other fields, especially the change of our values. All these changes in China have brought huge impact to Chinese psychology and behavior. This paper mainly concerns Chinese social and cultural change effect in recent sixty years, through exploration of Chinese individualism.
From the perspective of cultural psychology, social (cultural) change research generally compares values, psychology or behavior of people from different culture. In that way, researchers can examine social and cultural change effect, and explore the feature of changes in our mind, emotion, behavior, and values. This paper was aimed to address the change of Chinese individualism in recent sixty years through four studies, by self report measure and cultural products method.
In study 1, we investigated Chinese uniqueness among five generations with self-report measure, and found significant generational increases in uniqueness traits. In study 2, we examined changes in uniqueness in the Chinese names from six generations, and found that parents increasingly tend to help their children stand out and like to give them unique names. In study 3, we assessed Chinese self-others relationship among five generations with self-report measure, and found increasingly independent-self trait on self-others relationship. In study 4, we tested whether popular music included more self-focused lyrics over time, and found that song lyrics included increasingly words related to agency. The increase in uniqueness and self-independent traits mirrored increase of Chinese individualism in recent fifty or sixty years. Apart from that, the results of cultural products studies (study 2 and study 4) strongly supported the results of self-report studies (study 1 and study 3).
Taken together, this paper has enriched cultural change research, and confirmed that cultural psychology should focus both on things “in the head” and “outside the head”. In addition, our research provided some reference for future policies and regulations in China.
Subject Area应用心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19503
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
丰怡. 个人主义在当代中国:文化变迁视角下的考察[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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