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策略加工和工作记忆对情绪调节的影响 ——来自脑电的实验证据
其他题名The Influence of Strategy Processing and Working Memory to Emotion Regulation ——Evidences from ERP Studies
甘淑珍
学位类型博士
导师基础心理学
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词认知再评价 表达抑制 工作记忆 晚期正成分 (LPP)
摘要情绪调节是个体心理健康的重要功能之一,它和一系列重要的心理、社会功能以及躯体健康有显著的相关。由于其重要的临床和社会意义,这一领域一直是研究者关注的热点。在情绪情境中,人们可以采用多种策略来调节自己的情绪,如,最常用的认知再评价和表达抑制。目前,已有大量行为和脑成像的研究探讨了这些情绪调节策略的调节效果和脑神经机制,但是调节在时间进程上的特征以及情绪调节的认知机制还有待研究。本研究基于前人的工作,主要运用事件相关电位技术,尝试去研究上述问题。本论文从三个研究进行了探讨。 研究一考察了再评价和抑制对脑电的调节效果及其调节在时间上的特征。实验结果发现,再评价比抑制更有效的降低了负性情绪诱发的脑电反应(LPP),并且这一调节效应发生在相对晚期的阶段,说明在情绪产生的过程中,可能早期更容易受到刺激驱动的的情绪加工的影响,而晚期才受到了控制的调节加工的影响。再评价和抑制不同的调节效果可能来自于它们不同的加工机制。实验结果发现,再评价包含了更多的针对情绪刺激意义的认知性加工,反映在更大的与认知加工相关的LPP波幅,以及前扣带回、额内回的激活。而抑制则包含了针对占优势的自发行为反应的控制加工,反映在更大的与成功抑制相关的N2波幅,以及额下回以及额中回的激活。 研究二和研究三进一步对情绪调节的加工机制进行了考察。大部分关于情绪调节加工机制的理论都假设了工作记忆在情绪调节中的重要作用。也有研究证据揭示了,情绪调节和工作记忆存在着功能脑区上的重合,以及情绪调节存在困难的个体往往也存在着工作记忆上的缺陷。因此,接下来的研究直接检验了最基本的认知成分——工作记忆对有效的情绪调节的贡献。
研究二检验了具有不同工作记忆能力的人群是否在情绪调节能力上有差异。实验结果发现,比起那些低工作记忆的被试,高工作记忆的被试能够更好的从不同的角度(中性或负性)来评价情绪图片的意义,从而调节情绪诱发的脑电反应(LPP)。这一工作记忆能力和情绪调节效果相关的原因可能是工作记忆的资源或者加工直接参与到了情绪调节中,而高工作记忆人群有着更多的认知资源和更好的加工,因而在情绪调节时有足够的资源在有竞争性加工(自下而上的情绪加工)的情况下,维持调节目标相关的控制性加工。对于这一点,我们在研究三中进行了验证。 研究三通过操纵工作记忆负荷检验了不同的负荷条件下,即时的情绪调节的效果是否会受到不同的影响。如果高负荷下,情绪调节效果受到了损害,则说明工作记忆可能直接参与了情绪调节,在同时进行的竞争任务耗费了过多的工作记忆资源或占用了工作记忆加工时,情绪调节的效果就削弱了。实验结果发现,在高负荷条件下被试根据不同意义评价图片从而调节相应LPP反应的效果要显著的差于低负荷条件下的效果,而且该影响发生在一个较晚期的阶段。
其他摘要Emotion regulation is important for mental health, and is closely related to both psychological and physical well-being. Due to its application significance and clinical significance, emotion regulation has aroused interest from researchers for many years. In an emotional situation, individuals can adopt many strategies to regulate their emotional responses, e.g., the most frequently used strategies, cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. So far, a sizable behavioral and neuroimage studies investigated the regulation effect and the neural correlates of these strategies, but their temporal properties of regulation and the cognitive mechanisms are still open to be ivestigated. Based on previous literatures, present study investigated these questions using event-related potentials (ERPs) in three studies. Study 1 investigated the electrocortical modulation effect of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression, and the temporal dynamics of their regulation. We found that compared with suppression, reappraisal effectively decreased the amplitude of LPP enhanced by negative picture. Moreover, this regulation effect occurred in a relative period of the picture presenting, which suggested that the early stage of emotion generation might be influenced more by stimulus-driven emotional processing, and the late stage could be influenced by the controlled regulation processing. The different regulation effect of reappraisal and suppression may be attributed to their different processing mechanisms. Results suggested that reappraisal involved cognitive processes focused on the meaning of emotional stimuli, indexed by enhanced cognitive LPP and the activation of anterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal gyrus. While suppression involved control processes focused on the prepotent responses, indexed by enhanced N2 and the activation of inferior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus.
Study 2 and study 3 further investigated the cognitive mechanisms of emotion regulation. Many researchers hypothesized the influence of working memory on the effect of emotion regulation. Evidences also indicated this idea, for example, the overlap brain regions (e.g., DLPFC) between working memory tasks and emotion regulation, and the defects of working memory abilities in individuals with emotion regulation difficulties. Therefore, the following studies directly examined the contribution of working memory to effective emotion regulation. Study 2 investigated the relationship of individual differences in working memory and emotion regulation. The result indicated that, compared to participants with lower working memory, participants with higher working memory can more successfully evaluate the negative pictures according to different meanings, hence more effectively regulate the neural responses (LPP) elicited by pictures. This correlation may be caused by the direct involvement of working memory in online emotion regulation. Individuals with higher working memory have more cognitive resources and better working memory processing ability, such as updating, so they are more likely to maintain the goal-related processes in the situation with competitive processes (i.e., prepotent emotional process). Study 3 examined this hypothesis. Study 3 manipulated the working memory load and examined whether online emotion regulation was influenced by different load. If under high load, the effect of emotion regulation was impaired, it may indicate that working memory directly involves in emotion regulation. Because when competitive task depleted too much resources or occupied working memory processes, the effectiveness of emotion regulation was badly affected. We found that under high load condition, participants were less likely to reappraise the negative picture according to different meanings and regulate related LPP, while under low load condition, this reappraisal effect was still significant. Furthermore, this influence of working memory load on online reappraisal was occurred in a relative late stage.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19509
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
甘淑珍. 策略加工和工作记忆对情绪调节的影响 ——来自脑电的实验证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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