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知觉学习对运动适应的影响
其他题名The Effects of Perceptual Learning on Motion Adaptation
高忆
学位类型硕士
导师鲍敏
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词大脑可塑性 运动适应 知觉学习 抵消百分比 迁移
摘要大脑可塑性(brain plasticity)是指行为、环境、神经加工、思维、情绪以及身体损伤等变化导致的大脑神经通路以及突触的改变(Pascual-Leone et al., 2011)。一般认为,视觉适应是短时程可塑性的一个代表,而知觉学习是长时程可塑性的例子。一直以来视觉适应和知觉学习都被割裂开来研究,在过去几年里,仅有少量研究开始试图探讨知觉学习和视觉适应的关系。本研究通过连续多天训练运动适应任务来探讨运动适应和知觉学习的关系。
实验一在前后测和训练期间均采用“top-up”范式测量抵消比例,借此探究连续十天的训练是否会改变适应的程度。结果发现,训练能显著减少适应程度,且这种适应程度的减少是特异于训练位置的。
为了探究是不是“top-up”范式中对时间上注意再分配的学习导致了适应程度的减少,实验二将固定呈现5s的适应刺激时长改为在2s~8s之间的不固定时长。实验二的结果与实验一类似,发现10天的训练仍能显著减少适应位置的适应程度,且这种训练效果不能迁移到未训练位置。
实验三的前后测仍然采用“top-up”范式,训练任务为在连续适应的同时侦察速度加快,目的是探究训练不同任务是否仍能减少适应程度。实验三发现,改变训练任务之后在实验一、二中发现的训练作用消失了,表明训练对适应程度的减少依赖于训练任务。
实验四在实验一的基础上在对照位置每天完成未适应状态下的抵消比例任务,结果发现这并不能使训练位置适应程度的减小迁移到对照位置。
结合以上研究,我们发现训练能有效减少运动适应的程度,并且训练对适应程度的减少是特异于训练位置和训练任务的。
其他摘要Changes could occur in neural pathway and synapses of our brain as a result of changes of behavior, environment, neural processes, thinking, emotions and bodily injury, which is called brain plasticity (Pascual-Leone et al., 2011). It is generally recognized that visual adaptation is a representation of short-term plasticity while perceptual learning is an example of long-term plasticity. These two aspects of neural plasticity have been investigated in isolation for many years and only few researches have tried to investigate the relationship between them in the past few years. The present study aims to explore this issue by training human subjects to adapt to motion for multiple daily sessions.
Using top-up paradigm, in Experiment 1, we measured nulling percentage both during training and in pre- and post-tests to investigate whether 10-day’s training could alter adaptation strength. Results showed that training significantly reduced nulling percentage at trained location, rather than that at untrained location.
To rule out learning to reallocate attention in time, in Experiment 2, the 5s constant duration of the top-up adapter in each trial was substituted with a random length between 2 and 8s. The results resembled those of Experiment 1 that training resulted in location-specific reduction of adaptation strength.
In Experiment 3, we trained subjects to detect speedups in a continuous adaptation condition while still pre- and post-tested them with the original top-up paradigm to probe whether the attenuation of adaptation strength could be induced by training with a distinct task. Results of Experiment 3 found that the learning effect vanished as a result of changing training task, thus implicating that the learning effect was task-dependent.
Training subjects like in Experiment 1 and asking them to do the nulling task without adaptation at the control location, Experiment 4 failed to find transfer of the learning effects.
Taken together, the current work revealed that training could effectively weaken the strength of motion adaptation and this training effect was location-specific and task-specific.
学科领域应用心理
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19512
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
高忆. 知觉学习对运动适应的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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