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中文阅读中的汉字位置编码
其他题名Character Position Encoding in Chinese Reading
顾俊娟
学位类型博士
导师李兴珊
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
摘要大量研究证明:在拼音文字中,字母位置编码是非常灵活的。字母转置非词(单词中相邻两个字母调换位置)比字母替换非词(调换位置的两个字母被替换成另外两个字母)更像其基词,即转置非词比替换非词更容易激活其基词,这就是字母转置效应。在汉语书面或印刷文本中,词与词之间没有空格等明显的边界标记。本研究利用中文文本的特性,考察了中文阅读中的汉字位置编码问题。
研究一探讨了在中文双字词识别中,词素边界是否影响汉字位置编码。我们选取了两种词素结构不同的双字词:单纯词和合成词。在实验一,我们使用了掩蔽启动词汇决定任务。启动刺激或与靶子词相同(相同条件),或是靶子词的汉字转置非词(转置条件),或是靶子词的汉字替换非词(替换条件)。研究结果显示,替换条件的正确率低于转置条件;替换条件的反应时长于转置条件。无论是正确率还是反应时指标,词类型和启动条件的交互作用不显著。因此,中文词汇识别过程中存在汉字转置效应。但是,词素边界不能调节汉字位置编码。在实验二,我们使用边界范式,把靶子词嵌入到句子中。我们同样操纵了双字词的类型和预视刺激的类型。预视刺激类型也是相同条件、转置条件和替换条件。结果发现,靶子词上的注视时间在替换条件下比转置条件下的长得多。词类型和预视条件的交互作用不显著。因此,在副中央凹视野中存在汉字转置效应。词素边界不影响中文阅读中的汉字位置编码。在实验三,我们考察在一般的句子阅读场景中词素内转置和词素间转置对词汇识别的模式是否有差异。结果发现注视时间在转置条件显著长于相同条件。可见,在中央凹视野,词素边界信息不影响汉字位置编码。而且,汉字位置编码发生在词汇加工的早期阶段。
研究二探讨了在中文阅读中词边界是否影响汉字位置编码。我们选取了四字成语和两个双字词作为不同类型的靶子刺激。与研究一相同,在实验四和实验五,我们分别使用了掩蔽启动词汇决定任务和边界范式。启动和预视刺激或与靶子刺激相同(相同条件),或是靶子刺激中间两个字转置后的非词(转置条件),或是靶子刺激中间两个字被其它字替换后的非词(替换条件)。结果显示:在两个双字词条件,转置条件的反应时和注视时间显著长于相同条件;而在一个词条件,反应时和注视时间在转置条件和相同条件没有差异,而反应时和正确率在替换条件比转置条件更长,即存在很强的汉字转置效应。实验六在更为自然的句子阅读场景考察词边界效应。结果发现,靶子词的首次注视时间在跨词边界汉字转置条件显著长于相同条件。首次注视时间在词内汉字转置和相同条件没有差异。
总之,在中文阅读中汉字位置得到编码,存在汉字转置效应。词边界信息影响汉字位置编码。词的切分发生在词汇识别的早期阶段,可能与汉字位置编码同时发生,或者早于汉字位置编码。
其他摘要A number of experiments have shown that letter position encoding is very flexible in alphabetic writing systems. A transposed-letter nonword (TL condition), created by transposing two adjacent letters of a word, is perceptually similar to the base word, much more than a replacement-letter nonword (SL condition), in which two corresponding letters are replaced (i.e., the TL effect). There are no spaces or other explicit visual cues between successive words in Chinese texts except for punctuation marks. Given characteristics of Chinese text, character position encoding was examined in our studies.
We explored how character order information is encoded in two-character words recognition in the first study. Aditionally, whether morpheme boundaries modulate character position encoding is tested. Simple words and compound words were chose as targets. In Experiment 1, we used a masked priming paradigm and in Experiment 2, we embedded target words in sentences and manipulated previews using a boundary paradigm. The prime (in Experiment 1) or preview (in Experiment 2) was identical to the target word (identity condition), a transposition of the two characters of the target word (transposed-character condition, TC condition) or two characters that were different from the characters in the target word (substituted-character condition, SC condition). The results showed that response latencies in the lexical decision task and reading times on the target word region were longer in the SC condition than the TC condition, which were respectively longer than in the identity condition. Therefore, transposed-character effects occurred in Chinese reading. However, morpheme boundaries did not affect character position encoding. In Experiment 3, we explored whether there was different effects between within-morpheme transpositions and across-morpheme transpositions in natural reading conditions. Results found fixation durations in the TC condition was longer than that in the identity condition. A main effect of word type did not appear. To summarize, morpheme boundaries had no effect on character position encoding, and character position encoding occurred at an early stage in word processing.
We explored the effects of word boundaries in Chinese text on the character order encoding in the second study. We used four-character words (the one-word condition) and two two-character words (the two-word condition) as our targets. We used the masked priming paradigm in Experiment 4, embedded the target words into sentences, and then manipulated the previews through the boundary paradigm in Experiment 5. The prime (in Experiment 4) or preview (in Experiment 5) was identity condition, TC condition or SC condition. The reaction times (RTs) and fixation durations on the target word in the TC condition were much longer than those in the identity condition for the two-word condition, but were not significantly different for the one-word condition. Word boundaries were found to affect the character order encoding in Chinese reading. In Experiment 6, we explored whether word boundaries affected character position encoding in natural reading conditions. Results found first fixation duration in the TC condition was longer than the identity condition for two-word targets, while first fixation duration in the TC and identity conditions was not significant for one-word targets.
In summary, character position was encoded and transposed-character effects occurred in Chinese reading. Word boundaries affected character order encoding. Word segmentation occurs at a very early stage of visual word recognition, before or coinciding with the letter position encoding.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19515
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
顾俊娟. 中文阅读中的汉字位置编码[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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