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前瞻性人格如何影响情绪耗竭的日常波动: 日记法的证据
其他题名How Proactive Personality Influences Daily Fluctuations of Emotional Exhaustion: Evidence From Two Diary Studies
郭文汇
学位类型硕士
导师李永娟
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪耗竭 日常波动 前瞻性人格 工作控制 日记法
摘要情绪耗竭是工作倦怠的核心成分,它对个体的工作学习绩效和幸福感有着重要的负性影响,因此探索情绪耗竭的影响因素对于降低情绪耗竭对个体的负性影响有着重要的现实意义。以往大多数研究将情绪耗竭视为一种相对稳定的慢性的心理疲劳状态,主要从个体间的视角探讨了工作场所中情绪耗竭的前因和结果,而忽视了情绪耗竭的日常波动特征以及个体差异因素对情绪耗竭日常波动的影响。本研究以资源保存理论为理论框架,在两种不同的学校情境下,从个体内的视角探索了个体早上情绪耗竭到晚上情绪耗竭之间的波动和前瞻性人格在情绪耗竭日常波动过程中的调节作用,以及前瞻性人格在不同情境下对个体情绪耗竭日常波动调节效应可能存在的两面性。
本研究采用日记法,通过两个研究分别探索了大学生和研究生情绪耗竭的日常波动。研究一以102 名大学生为样本进行了连续4 个工作日的日记研究,探讨了情绪耗竭的早晚波动以及前瞻性人格的调节作用。研究二以151 名研究生为样本进行了连续5 个工作日的日记研究,检验了工作控制与前瞻性人格对情绪耗竭日常波动的联合调节作用。
多层线性模型分析的结果表明:(1)个体早上情绪耗竭的水平与晚上情绪耗竭的水平显著正相关。(2)前瞻性人格显著调节个体情绪耗竭的日常波动,且其调节效应存在两面性:前瞻性人格既可以缓解(减弱个体早上情绪耗竭与晚上情绪耗竭之间的相关)也可以恶化(加强个体早上情绪耗竭与晚上情绪耗竭之间的相关)情绪耗竭的日常波动。(3)工作控制与前瞻性人格对情绪耗竭日常波动的联合调节作用不显著。
本研究从个体内的视角探索了情绪耗竭的短期变化,这对现有情绪耗竭的研究文献是一个有益的补充。而且,本研究还发现了前瞻性人格既有良好的一面也有适应不良的一面,该结果拓展了以往大多数研究对前瞻性人格积极效应的探索,加深了我们对前瞻性人格的认识。同时,本研究对教育工作者的实际工作也具有一定的实践意义。未来的研究需要更加精细地探索情绪耗竭的瞬时波动,并继续探讨前瞻性人格不同效应的边界条件。
其他摘要Emotional exhaustion is the core component of job burnout, which has a tremendous negative effect on the work performance and well-being of an individual. Thus, the factors that contribute to emotional exhaustion should be elucidated. However, most previous studies investigated the antecedents and outcomes of emotional exhaustion from between-persons perspective. Emotional exhaustion is generally perceived as relatively stable, chronic mental fatigue experience. The daily fluctuations of, as well as how individual differences contribute to, emotional exhaustion are often overlooked. In this study, we use conservation of resources theory as the theoretical framework. We explore how an individual’s emotional exhaustion fluctuates from morning to evening. We also examine the moderating role of proactive personality from within-person perspective in two different education settings. Moreover, the mixed moderating effects of proactive personality in different situations are also investigated.
This study employed a diary study to test the hypotheses in two studies. A total of 102 university students participated in study 1, in which they completed a daily survey over four consecutive work days. We tested the daily fluctuations of emotional exhaustion and the moderating role of proactive personality. In study 2, 151 graduate students completed a daily survey over five consecutive work days. The joint moderating effects of job control and proactive personality on the daily fluctuations of emotional exhaustion were examined.
Multilevel analyses revealed noteworthy results as follows. (1) Morning and evening emotional exhaustion were significantly positively correlated. (2) Proactive personality significantly moderated the daily fluctuations of emotional exhaustion, and the moderating effect has two sides. Proactive personality may either buffer (weaken the correlation between morning and evening emotional exhaustion) or augment (strengthen the correlation between morning and evening emotional exhaustion) emotional exhaustion. (3) The joint moderating effects of job control and proactive personality were insignificant.
This study explored the short-term fluctuations of emotional exhaustion from within-person perspective. Moreover, the study showed both the adaptive and maladaptive roles of proactive personality. The results extended the existing literature and expanded our understanding of proactive personality. We also discussed the practical implications for educators. Future studies should explore the finer momentary fluctuations of emotional exhaustion and continue examining the boundary conditions of the mixed effects of proactive personality.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19518
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
郭文汇. 前瞻性人格如何影响情绪耗竭的日常波动: 日记法的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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