|Alternative Title||Children’Executive Function and Its Influencing Factors|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||儿童 执行功能 心理旋转 家庭环境 主观应激 情绪 影响因素|
|Abstract||执行功能（executive function, EF）是一个很宽泛的理论结构，包括完成任务和达成目标所需要的各种控制和管理能力。 童年中期是执行功能快速发展的重要阶段，而且，执行功能被认为是儿童前额叶和外部环境动态互动（dynamic interaction）的结果。但是目前对学龄儿童执行功能研究相对较少、结果也不一致，且缺乏针对该年龄段儿童执行功能影响因素的研究。|
研究一证明了执行功能各成分内的相关均显著（除工作记忆外），各成分之间亦存在相关，但EF 子成分的内部一致性系数未达到标准，结果证实了 Miyake提出的EF 为统一但多样性（the unity and diversity of executive functions）的结构理论。执行功能各成分呈线性发展。除抑制控制外，各成分均无性别差异。研究二证明了 2D-心理旋转测试只对执行功能部分特征——空间工作记忆和抑制控制差异敏感，而且这种敏感性存在年级差异。该测试尚不能作为儿童执行功能的综合测查任务。 研究三证明了家庭环境是儿童执行功能以及主观应激和情绪状态的重要影响因素。家庭物质环境分别通过消极情绪，主观应激间接地预测儿童
认知灵活性；情感表达亦可以通过消极情绪间接对儿童认知灵活性做出预测。消极情绪和主观应激是家庭环境与儿童认知灵活性的中介变量。而且，SSS 能够对儿童消极情绪和主观应激水平产生显著负向预测作用，SES 亦可以通过影响 SSS间接预测儿童主观应激和消极情绪水平。 研究四证明了儿童持续注意和抑制控制显著相关，而且持续注意与 Go/NoGo关系存在性别差异。
|Other Abstract||Executive function (EF) is a broad theoretical structure, including all kinds of abilities in inhibition and management which is needed in fulfilling tasks and reaching goals. Middle childhood is the crucial stage of rapid development of executive function. Besides, EF is thought to be the result of dynamic interaction between children’s prefrontal lobe and the external environment. However, the study on executive function and its influencing factors among children of school age is rare and inconsistent.|
Neuropsychological measurements and questionnaires were used to evaluate the structure and development of executive function and determine its influencing factors. There were four studies. The first study explored the structure and development of executive function among children of school age with eight neuropsychological tests. The second study focused on the executive function characteristics of children among children of school age in 2D- mental rotation test. The third study explored the relation among home environment, children’s executive function, self-reported stress and affective states. The forth study investigated whether children’s sustained attention would predict their inhibitory control (the kernel of EF).
Results of the study indicate 1) the correlations between two tasks within each sub-component were significant except the working memory, so did the relationship between different sub-components. The coefficient of internal consistency of the whole EFs was 0.596, which confirmed the unity and diversity of executive functions. ALL components developed in linear growth. EF had no significant sexual difference except inhibitory control. 2) The lower score in 2D-mental rotation only showed that children had worse performance in spatial working memory and inhibitory control.
And there existed the sex differences. Therefore, 2D-mental rotation could not be considered as a synthetic evaluation of EF. 3）Home environment could predict EF, self-reported stress and affective states of children. Besides, the mediating roles of negative affectivity (self-reported stress) between the material environment of family and cognitive flexibility and the mediating roles of negative affectivity between emotional expression of family and cognitive flexibility were confirmed among children of school age. 4) There existed significant relationship between sustained attention and inhibitory control. Besides, the correlation between sustained attention and Go/NoGo had significant sexual difference.
Implications of this research include 1) EF of children developed in linear growth during middle childhood. 2) Children’s negative affectivity and self-reported stress mediated the association between family environment and executive functions, or, more accurately, cognitive flexibility. 3) The obstructive effect of negative mood and self-reported stress in the improvement of cognitive flexibility should be taken seriously.
|赫中华. 儿童执行功能及其影响因素研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.|
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