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情绪韵律的动态加工机制
其他题名The Dynamic Processing Mechanism of Emotional Prosody
江爱世
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪韵律 ERP 刺激驱动 认知调节 动态加工
摘要从环境中快速有效地感知声音中的情绪信息,尤其是无法面对面交流时,对于人类的生存和社会交流至关重要。近些年来,在心理学和认知神经科学领域,情绪韵律的认知神经机制越来越受到研究者们的重视。本文在系统梳理情绪声音加工理论和实证研究的同时,旨在探索情绪韵律的动态加工机制,采用ERP(Event-related Potentials,事件相关电位)技术考察声音物理特征和任务要求如何调节情绪韵律的加工过程。
本论文首先通过探索情绪韵律早期加工中声学特征的效应,以此考察情绪韵律的早期加工机制。实验1在内隐oddball范式下,变化标准刺激的呈现方式,将声学线索及其携载的情绪信息分离开来。结果发现相对情绪信息的单独改变,声学线索及其情绪信息的同时改变诱发了更大的失匹配负波(Mismatch Negative, MMN)。这提示了早期声学线索自下而上的驱动效应,表明了一般性信息加工的早期机制。实验2进一步比较情绪声音及其声学参数匹配、情绪信息消失的频谱旋转声音作为偏差刺激时诱发的大脑反应。结果发现相对情绪偏差声音,与中性声音和情绪声音相对应的频谱旋转偏差声音均诱发更大的MMN;这不仅进一步提示了在情绪韵律早期加工的一般性信息加工,并且表明声音的感知突显度自下而上地调节着其早期加工。
实验3和实验4进一步考察声音类型和任务要求两个因素如何调节情绪韵律加工的各个阶段。使用声音重复检测任务,实验3发现不同的声音类型激发了不同的大脑反应模式:大脑敏感于无意义的频谱旋转声音的声音参数;而对于情绪声音,其情绪强度信息被觉察并得到精细分析。这也提示了声音类型作为知觉特征对情绪声音加工阶段的调节效应。实验4则发现在情绪范畴任务下,大脑关注情绪范畴信息,以此区分情绪声音及其频谱旋转声音;且情绪范畴任务使得大脑不再敏感于频谱旋转声音的声学特征感知和声音情绪的精细加工,由此展示了任务要求对情绪韵律加工过程的自上而下地调节效应。
本论文通过ERP实验表明了情绪韵律加工的动态性:情绪声音的早期是一般性信息加工过程,受到声音物理特征和知觉特征的影响;声音类型信息作为知情绪韵律的动态加工机制
II

觉特征影响着情绪声音的加工阶段;任务要求则自上而下地动态调节情绪声音的加工阶段。本研究结果拓展了三阶段模型的序列加工观点,强调了刺激驱动和任务调节的交互作用,使我们对情绪韵律认知神经机制的认识更加深入和系统,为心理学和认知神经科学领域的研究提供动态加工的思路。
其他摘要It is adaptively important to identity emotional state of the speaker throught the variations of supra-segmental acoustic cues such as pitch, intensity and duration, which were termed as emotional prosody, especially when communicated non face-to-face. During the past decades, the brain mechanisms and electrophysiological correlates during emotional prosody comprehension have been interested and explored increasingly. The present thesis systematically summarizes the neural processing theories and empirical researches on emotional prosody; and explore the dynamic processing of emotional prosody, by conducting four ERP (Event-related Potentials) experiments to investigate the stimuli-driven and the task-dependent effects.
The present thesis investigated the effects of stimuli properties in the early processing stage of emotional prosody. By changing the presentation manners of the standand sounds in implicit oddball paradigm, Experiment 1 separated the acoustic properties and emotional information their carried. The results revealed that larger MMN (Mismatch nagative) was invoked by the simultaneous changes in the emotional category and acoustic properties than by change in only emotional category, comfirming the effect of acoustic properties and the domain-general change dection in early stage. Experiment 2 further compared the brain responses to emotional deviant sounds and the spectrally rotated deviant sounds which shared acoustic features but without affective properties. The results revealed that larger MMN was evoked by spectrally rotated than emotional sounds. The MMN effects can also be explained in the domain-general change detection, and the perceived salience of change from original sounds to the spectrally rotated properties may determine the early processing during emotional prosody comprehension.
Experiment 3 and 4 aim to investigate the timing and dynamics of prosodic emotional information in the brain, by systematically manipulating sound types and one-back task in Experiment 4, it is later to differ emotional sounds from their spectrally rotated counterparts. Moreover, under emotioanl explicit task: brains are no longer sensitive to the acoustic difference of spectrally rotated sounds, and elaborate analysis of the emotioal sounds was absent, showing the modulation effects from task demands.
In four experiments, the present thesis indicates the dynamics of prosodic emotional information in the brain. At the early stage, emotional prosody are processed in domain-general information processing manner, and are affected by vocal physical properties and perception properties. The sound type as perception property modulate the brain processing, and further tak demands also modulate the brain processing across stages. These results expand the theoretical perspectives of three stage modal, and deepen our knowledge on the cognitive neural mechanism on emotional prosody, and then suggest the dynamic view in psycholoyg and congnitive neural studies.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19599
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
江爱世. 情绪韵律的动态加工机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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