PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
关联注意捕获的机制研究
其他题名Mechanism of Contingent Attentional Capture
焦军
学位类型博士
导师张侃 ; 杜峰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词自下而上的控制 自上而下的控制 注意捕获 刺激驱动的捕获 有条件的捕获 特征 关系 注意控制定势
摘要对于人们能否选择性地注意或控制环境中的信息加工这个基本的问题存在两种理论观点。一方面,目标导向的注意理论认为,依据当前的任务要求或者意图,我们能以自上而下的方式将注意导向并维持在任务相关的事件上。另一方面,刺激导向的注意理论认为,外界环境中一些比较特殊的刺激不受当前任务的控制,以自下而上的方式,自动吸引注意。对于后面这种情况下,奇异刺激不受观察者当前任务的制约,自动吸引或捕获注意的现象称为注意捕获。
注意捕获在多大程度上受当前任务的调控是当前的争论焦点。其中,以Theeuwes等人为代表,强调纯粹刺激驱动的注意捕获,该理论认为一个刺激能否捕获注意取决于其本身的物理凸显性,并且不依赖观察者当前的任务或意向;而以Folk等人为代表提出的关联注意捕获,则强调观察者当前自上而下的注意控制定势(Attentional control setting,以下简称ACS)对注意捕获的调节作用。该理论认为,注意捕获是有条件的:奇异凸显的刺激必须与观察者当前的注意控制定势相匹配。ACS是当前行为目标的函数。继Folk等人(1992)提出关联注意捕获以来,研究者们针对关联注意捕获展开了大量的研究,以考察注意控制定势在注意调控中的作用。随着研究的不断深入,研究者们发现根据当前的任务要求ACS可以对注意导向进行宽泛、粗糙的调控,亦可以进行更精细的调控,其调控方式亦是灵活与复杂的。
围绕关联注意捕获这一研究内容,在以往研究的基础上,本研究旨在对以下三个问题进行探讨:(1)当分心物出现在注意窗口之内或之外时,注意控制定势对注意的调控是基于目标的特征还是基于目标-非目标的关系?(2)注意控制定势是否可以同时对多个不同特征的目标进行调控,其调控是否会受到刺激凸显性的影响?(3)在目标由两种不同维度的特征联合定义条件下,注意控制定势是如何组织的?
研究一结合空间线索化范式与空间瞬脱范式,通过六个行为实验考察了当分心物处在注意窗口之内或之外时,注意的导向是基于目标的特征还是基于目标-非目标的关系。实验一、二、三、五分心物出现在注意窗口之外,结果发现,特征匹配在注意导向中起关键作用。实验四与六分心物出现在注意窗口之内,结果发现,关系匹配在注意导向中起关键作用。实验结果的双分离,表明基于特征的捕获与基于关系的捕获可能是两种功能不同的关联注意捕获。
研究二采用空间线索化范式,系统操作了被试搜索目标的数量以及刺激的凸显性。通过四个实验考察我们能否同时保持多个注意控制定势,以及具体能保持的数量是否受刺激凸显性的影响。实验七、八、九分别对一种颜色的目标、两种颜色的目标、三种颜色的目标进行判断。结果发现,当有一种颜色的目标时(实验七),两种不同大小视角线索条件下,目标颜色的线索捕获了注意,而任务无关线索则没有捕获注意;当有两种颜色的目标时(实验八),无论线索视角的大小,两种目标颜色的线索均捕获了注意。而无关线索在大小不同线索条件下出现了不一致的结果,具体来说,小视角线索条件下,任务无关的线索并没有捕获注意;而在大视角线索条件下,任务无关的线索则捕获了注意。当有三种颜色的目标时(实验九),无论线索视角的大小,三种目标颜色的线索以及任务无关的线索均捕获了注意。最后,我们同样要求被试对三种颜色的目标进行判断,但减小了线索的视角(实验十),结果发现,三种目标颜色线索捕获了注意,而任务无关的线索并没有捕获注意。说明,我们可以同时对多个(至少三个)不同特征的目标特征进行调控,但具体调控的数量受刺激凸显性的影响。
研究三采用空间线索化范式,通过两个实验探讨当目标由不同维度的特征共同定义时,注意的导向是基于目标不同特征的表征还是基于目标整合客体的表征。两个实验中,被试搜索由颜色(红色或蓝色)与朝向(左倾45°或右倾45°)共同定义的目标字母,目标序列之前呈现线索序列,其中包括一个对目标出现位置没有任何提示作用的颜色/朝向奇异刺激(线索)。实验十一发现,与目标颜色/朝向完全匹配的线索,以及仅仅与目标颜色匹配的两种线索都捕获了注意,并且它们所引发的线索化效应的大小差异不显著,而与目标朝向匹配或正交的线索并没有引发线索化效应。实验十二减小了线索与目标之间的时间间隔,以避免发生注意脱离,其结果与实验十一的结果一致,即与目标颜色/朝向均匹配的线索引发了标志注意捕获的线索化效应,而与目标颜色/朝向均不匹配的线索却没有引发线索化效应,表明关联注意捕获不仅能在目标由单个特征定义的条件下被引发,而且当目标由两个不同维度的特征联合定义时,同样也能引发关联注意捕获。关键的是,与目标颜色匹配的两种线索,无论它们的朝向与目标的朝向不匹配或者正交均引发了线索化效应,表明捕获了注意,并且它们捕获注意的效应量与目标颜色/朝向均匹配的线索捕获注意的效应量差异不显著。而与目标的颜色不匹配的两种线索,尽管它们的朝向与目标的朝向匹配或者正交均没有引发线索化效应。本研究表明注意控制定势的组织,是以目标定义特征的不同独立表征方式进行的,而不是以目标定义特征的完全整合客体表征方式进行的。需要注意的是,颜色特征在注意捕获中起着决定性的作用,而朝向特征并没有起作用,颜色所起的作用似乎湮没了朝向所起的作用。
本文从三个不同的方面对注意控制定势进行了考察,试图揭示关联注意捕获的认知机制。研究结果丰富了关联注意捕获的理论研究,为进一步的研究提供借
鉴意义。
其他摘要One of the most fundamental questions is whether we are able to control what we select for attention from our environment. On the one hand selection is controlled by us in a voluntary, top–down way to select only those objects required to perform the task at hand, this is sometimes called endogenous control over the locus attention. Alternatively, the allocation of attention is driven in an automatic, bottom-up fashion by the properties of the stimulus features in the environment, this is sometimes referred to as exogenous control over the locus of attention. In the latter case, when objects or events receive priority of processing irrespective of the observer’s task at hand one refers to this as attentional capture.
Whether attentional capture by task-irrelevant stimuli is determined by top-down factors or can be purely stimulus-driven is hotly debated. On one hand, proponents of the stimulus-driven capture hypothesis (e.g., Theeuwes 1992, 2010) propose that attentional capture depends on the stimulus property per se, and salient stimulus can capture attention regardless of its match with the target feature. On the other hand, according to the contingent capture account, as proposed by Folk and colleagues (e.g., Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), attentional capture by singletons is completelyunder top-down control. Only stimuli that match the top-down control settings will capture attention; stimuli that do not match the top-down settings will be ignored. Following the study by Folk et al. (1992), evidence for the role of attentional control settings (ACSs) in attentional capture has grown. Initially, Folk et al. (1992, 1994) suggested that ACSs could only be set to one of two broad categories: dynamic discontinuities or static discontinuities. However, further research indicated that the tuning of ACSs could also be more fine-grained, operating at the featural level and the attention control system is remarkably flexible.
Around the contingent attentional capture, on the basis of previous studies, this study intended to address the following three questions: (1) whether color-matched distractors or color-relation-matched distractors capture attention when distractors appear outside of or within the attentional window? (2) Whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional control settings and whether the maintenance of multiple attentional control settings might be modulated by bottom-up salience? (3) Whether visual search for targets that are defined by a combination of features from different dimensions is guided by separately represented target features or by an integrated representation of target objects?
In the first study, we combined the spatial pre-cuing paradigm and the spatial blink paradigm, and six behavioral experiments were conducted to explore when distractor appeared within or outside of the attentional window, attentional capture by an irrelevant distractor depends on feature similarity or target's relative attributes. The results of Experiment 1, 2, 3 and 5 showed that a color distractor that matches a target-distractor color relation does not consistently capture attention when it appears outside of the attentional window, but distractors that match the target color consistently capture attention in the same circumstance. In contrast, in Experiment 4 and 6 we found that a color cue that matches a target-distractor color relation produces a cuing effect when it is within the attentional window, while a target-color matched cue does not. Such a double dissociation between color-specific capture and color-relation-based capture indicates functionally distinct mechanisms for these two types of attentional capture.
In the second study, we systematically manipulated the number of targets and the bottom-up salience by varying the visual angle of two cues (between-subject factors), and through four behavioral experiments to address whether spatial attention could be guided by multiple attentional control settings and whether the maintenance of multiple attentional control settings might be affected by bottom-up salience, using the spatial pre-cuing paradigm. In Experiment 7, participants searched for one colored target, the result showed that the target colored cue captured attention, but not the irrelevant cue, regardless of the degree of cue's visual angle. In Experiment 8, participants searched for a target that could be one of two colors, the result showed that both the target colored cues captured attention, regardless of the degree of cue's visual angle, the irrelevant cue did not capture attention, when the degree of cue's visual angle is small, but the irrelevant cue captured attention, when the degree of cue's visual angle is large. In Experiment 9, participants searched for a target that could be one of three colors, the result showed that the three target colored cues captured attention, and the irrelevant cue also captured attention, regardless of the degree of cue's visual angle. In Experiment 10, in order to investigate whether we could maintain three attentional control settings, the degree of cue's visual angle was further reduced. Just as Experiment 9, participants also searched for a target that could be one of three colors, and we found that the three target colored cues captured attention, but the irrelevant cue did not capture attention. The results suggested that we could maintain more one attentional control settings, at least three attentional control settings, but specific number could be modulated by bottom-up salience.
In the third study, two experiments were conducted to explore whether visual search for targets that are defined by a combination of features from different dimensions is guided by separately represented target features or by an integrated representation of target objects. In both experiments, participants searched for target that were defined by a specific combination of color (red or blue) and orientation (45° clockwise or 45°counterclockwise from vertical). Target display was preceded by cue display that contained a spatially uninformative colour/size singleton. Experiment 11 found that both target color/orientation matching cue capture attention, and two types of only target color matching cues also capture attention, and these three types of cues elicited comparable spatial cueing effects. While only target orientation mathcing cue or the cue whose orientation is only perpendicular to the target orientation did not elicited spatial cueing effects. In Experiment 12, the method was identical to Experiment 11, with the exception that the SOA between cue and target arrays was reduced to explore the rapid disengagement explanation. The pattern of result in Experiment 12 was very similar to that of Experiment 11. The present study indicated that the attentional selection of conjunctively defined targets is guided by independent input from parallel feature channels. However, it is important to note that color feature plays a crucial role in attentional capture, and the orientation feature plays no role in capturing. It seems that the role of orientation feature in capturing attention was annihilated by the color feature.
The present dissertation investigates attention control setting in tuning attention from three different aspects, to reveal the nature and cognitive mechanisms of contingent attentional capture. This dissertation enriches the theoretical researches of contingent attentional capture, and provides some perspectives on this topic.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19605
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
焦军. 关联注意捕获的机制研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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