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焦虑对情绪记忆 的影响 :ERP研究
其他题名Effects of Anxiety on Emotional Memory: Evidence from Event-related Brain Potentials
金翊翔
学位类型博士
导师罗跃嘉 ; 李雪冰
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词焦虑 情绪 记忆 事件相关电位
摘要该研究采用事件相关电位(Event-related potentials, ERP)技术,选取高低特质焦虑个体作为被试,以情绪词为实验材料,探讨焦虑对于情绪记忆的影响。研究分别考察了工作记忆、外显长时记忆和内隐记忆三个不同的记忆系统中,在记忆加工不同阶段焦虑水平对情绪记忆的影响。工作记忆研究采用延迟样本匹配任务范式,外显长时记忆和内隐记忆采用经典的学习-再认范式。
主要结果和结论如下:1)在工作记忆编码阶段,高低焦虑个体共同表现出P2成分上编码加工的负性偏向;保持阶段,低焦虑个体在1000-3000ms的SW上对负性词表现出比中性词更小的负向漂移,而高焦虑个体负性和中性词波幅没有差异;提取阶段,低焦虑个体表现出正性词比负性词更大的N400新旧效应,而高焦虑个体在负性词上引起的N400新旧效应大于低焦虑个体,且正性词波幅更正。该结果表明焦虑对工作记忆的影响主要发生在记忆保持阶段后期及提取阶段:保持阶段后期,低焦虑个体对负性刺激出现回避,而高焦虑个体存在对负性刺激更多的保持;在提取阶段,相比于低焦虑个体,高焦虑个体对负性词提取更好,并在正性词的提取上耗费了更多认知资源。2)在外显长时记忆编码阶段,高低焦虑个体都存在负性偏向,同时高低焦虑个体的P240和P3有边缘显著的差异;在外显长时记忆提取阶段,低焦虑个体表现出比高焦虑个体更大的额区N400新旧效应,但两者的P600新旧效应无统计差异。可见在外显长时记忆中,高焦虑水平可能干扰了语义加工和记忆编码,削弱了提取时的熟悉感,但未影响回忆过程。3)在内隐记忆编码阶段,高焦虑个体任务无关的P240波幅大于低焦虑个体,头皮后部的LPC上发现低焦虑个体存在负性词大于正性词的情绪效应,而高焦虑个体没有;内隐记忆提取阶段则没有发现高低焦虑个体之间的差异。该结果显示在情绪信息的内隐记忆中,焦虑影响了编码阶段,并未影响提取阶段。
综上,在工作记忆、外显长时记忆、内隐记忆等不同记忆系统中,焦虑的影响分别发生在不同加工阶段。文章对焦虑水平对情绪记忆的具体影响进行了讨论。
其他摘要In the present study, we used ERP (event-related potentials) technology, selecting the high and low trait anxiety individuals as subjects, emotional words as stimuli, to explore the effects of anxiety on emotional memory. We examined anxiety’s influence on different stages of memory processing for working memory, explicit long-term memory and implicit memory respectively. The DMST (delayed matching-to-sample task) and the classical study-testparadigm were employed.
The main results and conclusions obtained in theseries of experiments are as the following:
1) Both high-and low-anxiety individuals showed negative bias on P2 at encoding of working memory. During retention phase, aless negative late SW (1000-3000ms) for negative compared to neutral words was observed in low-anxiety individuals. At retrieval, the high-anxiety individuals showed greater N400 old-new effectthan low-anxiety ones for negative words, but smaller for positive words. Theseresults show that anxiety influences working memory during retention and retrieval phases. At retention, low-anxiety individuals show avoidance to negative stimuli; at retrieval, high-anxiety individuals spend more cognitive resources in the extraction of positive words, and they extract negative words better.
2) Duringencoding phaseof explicit long-term memory, both high-and low-anxiety individuals showed negative bias. The amplitude of P240 and P3 were marginally smallerfor high-compared to low-anxiety individuals. At retrieval, low-anxiety individuals showed larger frontal N400 old-new effect than high-anxiety individuals. It suggests that high anxiety level may interferewith semantic processing and memory encoding, causing weakened familiarity at retrieval for explicit long-term memory.
3) During encoding phase of implicit memory, a greater task-irrelevant P240 was observed for high-anxiety individuals compared to low-anxiety ones. Negative words induced higher LPC than positive words in the posterior area for low-anxiety individuals. At retrieval, no differences were found between high-anxiety and low-anxiety individuals. Theseresults suggest that anxiety affects encoding phase rather than retrieval phase in implicit memory.
To sum up, anxiety indeed influences working memory, explicit long-term memory and implicit memory, which effects in different memory processing stages. We discussed the specific influence of anxiety on emotional memory in the article.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19607
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
金翊翔. 焦虑对情绪记忆 的影响 :ERP研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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