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一致性顺序效应的认知机制
其他题名The Cognitive Mechanism of Congruency Sequence Effect
李婷婷
学位类型硕士
导师付秋芳
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词一致性顺序效应 意识 冲突监控
摘要日常生活中“前事不忘,后事之师”、“前车之覆,后车之鉴”,一方面说明人们会汲取以往的经验教训,作为后续工作的借鉴;另一方面也说明认知过程具有连续性,某一认知任务的完成不仅受到当前情境的影响,也会受以往经验的影响。与此相一致,实验室研究结果发现,人们的信息加工系统能够根据情境实时地调节自己的行为,提高任务的操作绩效。在Flanker 任务、Simon 任务以及Stroop任务的研究中发现,先前(n-1)试次的一致性和当前(n)试次的一致性共同影响个体在上述任务中的反应,最终导致一致试次与不一致试次后的一致性效应量差异显著,这一现象被称为一致性顺序效应(Congruence Sequence Effect)。人们在觉察到冲突之后,会通过认知控制过程,改善自己的行为以更好应对后续刺激,这是人类认知活动的灵活性和适应性的表现。目前,对于一致性顺序效应主要采用自上而下的冲突监控理论(Conflict Monitoring Theory)来解释,不过,也有研究者指出不能排除前后试次刺激特征的重复启动,认为一致性顺序效应的产生源于自下而上的刺激特征整合过程。
本研究采用三个实验,主要考察影响一致性顺序效应的认知因素,探讨其认知机制,为理解一致性顺序效应加工过程提供新的实验证据。
实验一使用经典的偏对比掩蔽范式,使用箭头图形作为刺激材料,考察一致性顺序效应与意识的关系。研究发现,无论是阈上水平还是阈下水平,启动刺激和目标刺激朝向不一致条件下的反应时显著延长。但是,只有在阈上水平,不一致试次后的一致性效应显著小于一致试次后的一致性效应,产生一致性顺序效应。进一步分析表明,以双向箭头的启动刺激作为基线水平,结果发现该效应主要是由前一试次中的冲突诱发的干扰效应引起的。另外,我们的结果还发现,被试的反应时和错误率均不受刺激特征重复的影响,说明在本研究中一致性顺序效应可能不依赖于刺激特征的整合,而主要是受冲突监控的影响。
实验二采用图片刺激代替箭头图形,用掩蔽范式探讨一致性顺序效应在语义冲突下的表现。与实验一的结果相一致,结果发现,在阈上和阈下条件下,启动刺激和目标刺激类别一致,被试的反应时显著短于启动刺激与目标刺激不一致条件。同样,只有在阈上条件下,前一试次的一致性会显著地影响当前试次的一致性效应量,表现出典型的一致性顺序效应。
实验三在实验一的的基础上,使用ERP 技术,考察在阈上和阈下条件下一致性信息加工过程中,N2,P3 等脑电成分的差异。结果发现,N2 成分的波幅在阈上条件显著大于阈下条件,P3 的的波幅在一致条件显著小于不一致条件。在平均波幅上,结果与行为实验一致,一致性顺序效应的大小在波幅和反应时上具有正相关。
综合上述三个实验的结果以及相关讨论,本研究可以得出如下结论:
(1) 一致性顺序效应的发生与对冲突信息的有意识觉察相关,可能需要意识的参与。
(2) 一致性顺序的产生依赖于对冲突信息的监控过程,而不受对冲突信息加工水平的影响。
(3) 一致性顺序效应的出现与 N2 波幅的变化有关,进一步说明其主要是由冲突控制引起的。
其他摘要When people encounter interference they adjust their behavior to overcome it.The ability to coordinate thoughts and actions in relation with internal goals is often required in our everyday life and scientific studies. In current study we will focus on this particular expression of cognitive control, known as Congruency Sequence Effect explored by Gratton et al. with the Eriksen flanker task, as well as in Simon task and Stroop task. This effect, also known as the Gratton effect, is typically calculated by computing the differences between congruency effects on preceding congruent and incongruent trials. Researchers in the last decade have been trying to unravel the mechanism of congruency sequence effect. It was explained by top to bottom conflict monitoring theory, but there are also researchers believed that repetition priming in a
bottom up feature duplication way cannot be ruled out.
The present research uses three experiments to test how congruency sequence effect occurred under different conditions.
Experiment 1 manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly compare congruency sequence effect on subliminal and supraliminal conditions. The results showed that incongruent trials (prime and target triggered different responses) led to slower response times and higher error rates either consciously or unconsciously. More importantly, significant congruency sequence effects were occurred under conscious conflict of the preceding trial but not under unconscious conflict, indicating that congruency sequence effect was modulated by the conscious state of preceding conflict. Moreover, the neutral trials were added to suggest that the congruency sequence effect elicited by the adaptation of interference, not of facilitation.
Experiment 2 used masked prime paradigm to elicit semantic conflict to investigate congruency sequence effect on subliminal and supraliminal conditions. The results showed that congruent trials (i.e. prime and target fall into the same category) led to faster response times and lower error rates either consciously or unconsciously.
Importantly, congruency sequence effects were occurred only under conscious condition but not under unconscious condition. That is, the trial-by-trial adjust effect, as a prevailing expression of cognitive control, seems to require awareness.
Experiment 3 adopted to the task in experiment 1, and compared conscious and unconscious congruency sequence effect by using ERP methods. The results showed the amplitude of N2 was larger under conscious condition than under unconscious condition.
According to these experiments, the conclusions were as follows:
(1) Congruency Sequence Effect occurred only when the prime was consciously experienced in the preceding trial, which shows that this sequential modulation depends on consciousness.
(2) Congruency Sequence Effect can be explained by conflict monitoring theory, and the conflict monitoring process can be triggered by semantic conflic.
(3) The amplitude of N2 reflects Congruency Sequence Effect process, which further explains this trial-by-trial adjust effect is mainly caused by the conflict control.
In addition, the research provides some evidence to solve the controversy that exists in previous studies.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19617
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李婷婷. 一致性顺序效应的认知机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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