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第三方“关系”与人际信任:人格的调节作用
其他题名Disanfang “Guanxi” and Interpersonal Trust: the Moderating Role of Personality
李小山
学位类型博士
导师张建新
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词“关系” 人际信任 第三方“关系” 人格
摘要人际信任是建立和维持良好人际关系的最重要因素之一,是经济、管理学、教育心理学研究的热点话题,但目前人际信任产生的潜在心理机制并不清楚。通过情境实验以及实验室实验相结合的方式,本研究在中国文化背景下首次系统地探讨第三方―关系‖与人际信任建立的关系,以及个体的人格特征在此关系中的调节作用。
主要结果如下:
1、基于大学生、工人两个样本,研究1对二十年前和当前中国大陆被试的“对象信任”进行比较。研究结果均显示,与二十年前一样,当前中国大陆被试的信任水平仍显示出“对象信任”的特点,且对亲人、生人的信任水平较二十年前并没有多少变化;然而人们对于熟人的信任水平则显著下降,但与二十年前的香港、美国样本差异不显著。
2、研究2、研究3分别是采用信任行为问卷以及信任游戏两种关于信任测量的研究范式对第三方―关系‖在人际信任建立中的作用进行探讨。结果表明,在存在有第三方―关系‖的情境下,个体更愿意与他人建立信任关系。
3、在研究2、研究3的基础上,研究4、研究5进一步来探讨个体自身的人格特征(包括大五人格和CPAI人格中的人际关系)在第三方―关系‖与人际信任建立中的调节作用。结果显示,就大五人格而言,高开放性、低神经质的个体对有第三方―关系‖(包括亲人关系和熟人关系)的个体表现出更高的信任水平;对于本土化人格特征(CPAI中的人际关系维度)而言,高和谐、高传统、高人情的个体对有第三方―关系‖的个体同样表现出较高的信任水平。
五个研究的结果显示,个体的人际信任行为不仅受直接“关系”的影响,而且受第三方“关系”的影响,且个体自身的人格特征也会影响到个体的人际信任行为(即调节第三方“关系”类型与人际信任间的关系)。
本研究结果有助于加深对本土化人际信任的影响因素以及潜在的心理机制的认识,同时也为理解和解释个体的社会行为以及如何建立和谐人际关系提供了理论依据。
其他摘要As one of the most important factors in establishing and maintaining a kind of harmonious interpersonal relationship, interpersonal trust is regarded to be one of the hot topics in the area of economics, management, educational and psychological researches. But the psychological mechanisms of interpersonal trust are not clear. This research was the first one in discussing the effect of indirect ties (or Disanfang ―guanxi‖) on the establishment of interpersonal trust, and investigating the moderating role of individual personality in the relationship between them under Chinese cultural background. We used the combinative methods of scenarios and behavioral designs to study the interpersonal trust and got some following conclusions.
1. Study 1 was to duplicate the Zhang & Bond’s (1993) study using both students and employees samples. Our result showed that: (a) similar to the result of Zhang & Bond’s, targe-based interpersonal trust (including intimates, acquaintances and strangers) was also found in both two samples; (b) comparing with Zhang & Bond’s, the subjects in our two samples did not differ in their trust toward intimate/stranger targets; (c) the mainland Chinese nowadays gave less trust to acquaintances than before, while no differ was found with Hong Kong subjects or American subjects twenties years ago.
2. Study 2 was used to investigate the role of indirect ties in building interpersonal trust using scenarios approach. The result showed that individual was more likely to build trust with others when both of them have a relationship with the third party. And this result was also supported by study 3, in which interpersonal trust was measured using behavioral approach.
3. Based on the results of study 2 and study 3, both study 4 and study 5 were to discuss the moderating role of individual’s personality in the relationship between indirect ties and the establishment of interpersonal trust, in which invidual personality was assessed by BIG six personality questionnaires. Similar results were found in two studies. That was, some individual personality dimensionalities played  a moderating role in the relationship between indirect ties and the establishment of interpersonal trust. In details, individual with high score of openness or low score of neuroticism was more likely to build trust with others when both of them have a relationship with the third party; and individual with high score of renqing, traditionalism and modernity, and harmony were also tended to build trust with others when both of them have a relationship with the third party.
To conclude, our findings showed that one’s interpersonal trust behaviors were closed related to both the direct and indirect ties with his/her partner. And individual personality also played a moderating role in the relationship between indirect ties and the establishment of interpersonal trust. These findings above help us to have a better understanding about the influences factors and the psychological mechanisms of interpersonal trust under Chinese background. So we can provide an academic reference on explaining individual’s social behaviors and how to establish harmonious interpersonal relationship in our country.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19618
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院大学心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李小山. 第三方“关系”与人际信任:人格的调节作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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