|其他题名||The Development of Preschool Children’s Moral and Conventional Judgment|
|关键词||儿童 道德判断 习俗判断 心理理论 厌恶情绪 ERP|
研究二利用ERP 技术考察道德和习俗判断的神经机制。通过考察大学生对道德违规行为、习俗违规行为和厌恶行为的判断，结果发现大学生判断习俗违规行为比判断道德违规行为和厌恶行为更慢，诱发了更大的认知冲突指标N2 波幅，表明对习俗违规行为的判断主要由认知加工过程控制；同时，被试根据行为的内在消极结果对道德违规行为和厌恶行为做出判断，表明情绪在这两种类型的行为中发挥着重要作用。厌恶行为比道德违规行为在早期阶段诱发了更大的N2，在晚期阶段诱发了更大的LPC，表明道德违规行为和厌恶行为诱发的情绪成分或者情绪强度存在差异。
|其他摘要||Children encounter a variety of social rules and social expectations in different social contexts. The capacity for drawing the moral/conventional distinction indicates a basic ability for moral judgment. The previous studies focused more on the characteristics of children's moral and conventional judgment, but less on the mechanism of judgment. From two studies, this paper explored the development, influence factors and its mechanism of the moral and conventional judgment.|
Study 1, including four experiments, investigated the development of 3-6 years old children’s moral and conventional judgment from the view of cognition and emotion, and the relationship between children's moral/conventional judgment and social behavior.
The first experiment investigated the relationship between children's theory of mind and moral/conventional judgment. The results showed that rudimentary distinctions between moral and conventional rules were evident as early as 3 years old and there was no statistically significant age difference. With the development of theory of mind, children regarded the conventional transgression as less permissible and independent of the authority, which did not appear in foreign studies. These results may be due to the fact that the development of children's understanding of conventional rules is mainly affected by social and cultural contexts.
By adding disgust violations, the second experiment explored children’s judgment of moral transgressions, conventional transgressions and disgust transgressions from the perspective of emotions. The results showed that children aged 3-6 distinguished moral and disgust transgressions from conventional transgressions on all criteria. It means that normative prohibitions connected to an affective mechanism might be treated as non-conventional. These results supported the Affect-Backed Normative Theory.
By exploring the impact of behavior outcome on intention judgment in third experiment, we found that from the age of 4, children already exhibited the side-effect effect. That is, people believe a side effect is brought about on purpose when the side effect is bad, but not when it is good. Furthermore, the side-effect effect not only existed in moral rules, but also extended to conventional rules. These results suggested that the behavior outcome influenced individual’s judgment of the actor ’s intention, revealing the domain consistency of side-effect effect.
The fourth experiment investigated the relationship between children’s moral judgment and social behavior and found that children’s sharing behaviors, but not aggressive behaviors, increased with age. Children's moral/conventional judgment was not related to prosocial behavior, whereas it has a negative correlation with aggressive behavior.
Study 2 investigated the neural mechanism of moral and conventional judgment by using ERP technology. The results showed that the judgments of conventional violations were slower and induced larger N2 than the judgments of moral violations and disgust violations. This suggested that the judgments of conventional violations require more cognitive processing. Additionally, the judgments of moral violations and disgust violations were based on the intrinsic negative consequences of the act, suggesting that the emotion plays an important role in these two kinds of violations.
There were larger N2 amplitudes in early stages and larger LPC amplitudes in late stages for judgments of disgust violations than moral violations. It indicated that the emotional components or emotional intensity induced by moral violations and disgust violations are different.
The above results showed that as young as 3-year-old, children were able to distinguish hypothetical moral transgressions and disgust transgressions from conventional transgressions. Cognitive and emotional factors play an important role in the judgment of moral/conventional rules, supporting the dual process model.
|林珠梅. 学前儿童道德与习俗判断的发展及其机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.|