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学前儿童道德与习俗判断的发展及其机制
其他题名The Development of Preschool Children’s Moral and Conventional Judgment
林珠梅
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词儿童 道德判断 习俗判断 心理理论 厌恶情绪 ERP
摘要儿童在不同的社会环境中会遇到各种各样的社会规则和社会期望。对道德规则和习俗规则的判断代表道德判断的一种基本能力,是道德发展的一个重要标志。以往研究主要关注儿童道德与习俗判断的特点,而较少考察道德与习俗判断的机制。本论文从两个研究探讨儿童道德与习俗判断的发展特点、影响因素及其机制。
研究一包括四个实验,从认知和情绪的角度考察3-6 岁儿童道德和习俗判断的发展特点,以及儿童道德和习俗判断能力与亲社会行为、攻击行为的关系。
实验一从认知的角度考察儿童心理理论与道德/习俗判断的关系,结果发现3岁儿童已经能基本区分道德违规行为和习俗违规行为,3-6 岁儿童的道德/习俗判断能力不存在显著的年龄差异;儿童的心理理论水平呈现出随年龄发展的趋势。随着儿童心理理论水平的提高,他们会倾向于认为习俗违规行为是不合理的、独立于权威的,而国外儿童的研究并没有表现出这种特点,这可能是因为儿童对习俗规则认知的发展主要受到特定社会文化背景的影响。
实验二通过增加厌恶行为,从情绪的角度考察儿童对道德违规行为、习俗违规行为和厌恶行为的判断,结果发现,3-6 岁儿童都能在一系列维度上将道德违规行为和厌恶行为从情感中性的习俗违规行为中区分出来,表明和情感机制相关的规范性禁止被认为是非习俗的,并能够从习俗违规行为中区分出来,支持了情感支持的规范理论。
实验三探讨结果判断对意图判断的影响,发现儿童从4 岁开始就表现出明显的诺布效应,即当一个副作用的结果是好的,个体会倾向于认为行动者是无意的,而当副作用的结果是坏的,个体就会倾向于认为行动者是故意的;这种效应不仅存在于道德规则,在习俗规则中也存在明显的诺布效应,表明行为结果符合或违反社会规则的性质影响儿童对行为者意图的判断,显示出诺布效应的跨领域一致性。
实验四考察儿童道德/习俗判断能力与社会行为的关系,发现3-6 岁儿童的分享行为呈现出随年龄增长而增加的趋势,攻击行为不存在显著的年龄差异;对儿童道德/习俗判断与亲社会行为、攻击行为的关系分析表明,儿童道德/习俗判断能力与亲社会行为不存在相关,而与攻击行为存在一定的负相关。
研究二利用ERP 技术考察道德和习俗判断的神经机制。通过考察大学生对道德违规行为、习俗违规行为和厌恶行为的判断,结果发现大学生判断习俗违规行为比判断道德违规行为和厌恶行为更慢,诱发了更大的认知冲突指标N2 波幅,表明对习俗违规行为的判断主要由认知加工过程控制;同时,被试根据行为的内在消极结果对道德违规行为和厌恶行为做出判断,表明情绪在这两种类型的行为中发挥着重要作用。厌恶行为比道德违规行为在早期阶段诱发了更大的N2,在晚期阶段诱发了更大的LPC,表明道德违规行为和厌恶行为诱发的情绪成分或者情绪强度存在差异。
以上研究结果表明,3 岁儿童已经能将道德违规行为和厌恶行为从习俗违规行为中区分出来,认知和情绪因素在道德/习俗判断中都发挥着重要作用,结果支持了双过程加工模型。
其他摘要Children encounter a variety of social rules and social expectations in different social contexts. The capacity for drawing the moral/conventional distinction indicates a basic ability for moral judgment. The previous studies focused more on the characteristics of children's moral and conventional judgment, but less on the mechanism of judgment. From two studies, this paper explored the development, influence factors and its mechanism of the moral and conventional judgment.
Study 1, including four experiments, investigated the development of 3-6 years old children’s moral and conventional judgment from the view of cognition and emotion, and the relationship between children's moral/conventional judgment and social behavior.
The first experiment investigated the relationship between children's theory of mind and moral/conventional judgment. The results showed that rudimentary distinctions between moral and conventional rules were evident as early as 3 years old and there was no statistically significant age difference. With the development of theory of mind, children regarded the conventional transgression as less permissible and independent of the authority, which did not appear in foreign studies. These results may be due to the fact that the development of children's understanding of conventional rules is mainly affected by social and cultural contexts.
By adding disgust violations, the second experiment explored children’s judgment of moral transgressions, conventional transgressions and disgust transgressions from the perspective of emotions. The results showed that children aged 3-6 distinguished moral and disgust transgressions from conventional transgressions on all criteria. It means that normative prohibitions connected to an affective mechanism might be treated as non-conventional. These results supported the Affect-Backed Normative Theory.
By exploring the impact of behavior outcome on intention judgment in third experiment, we found that from the age of 4, children already exhibited the side-effect effect. That is, people believe a side effect is brought about on purpose when the side effect is bad, but not when it is good. Furthermore, the side-effect effect not only existed in moral rules, but also extended to conventional rules. These results suggested that the behavior outcome influenced individual’s judgment of the actor ’s intention, revealing the domain consistency of side-effect effect.
The fourth experiment investigated the relationship between children’s moral judgment and social behavior and found that children’s sharing behaviors, but not aggressive behaviors, increased with age. Children's moral/conventional judgment was not related to prosocial behavior, whereas it has a negative correlation with aggressive behavior.
Study 2 investigated the neural mechanism of moral and conventional judgment by using ERP technology. The results showed that the judgments of conventional violations were slower and induced larger N2 than the judgments of moral violations and disgust violations. This suggested that the judgments of conventional violations require more cognitive processing. Additionally, the judgments of moral violations and disgust violations were based on the intrinsic negative consequences of the act, suggesting that the emotion plays an important role in these two kinds of violations.
There were larger N2 amplitudes in early stages and larger LPC amplitudes in late stages for judgments of disgust violations than moral violations. It indicated that the emotional components or emotional intensity induced by moral violations and disgust violations are different.
The above results showed that as young as 3-year-old, children were able to distinguish hypothetical moral transgressions and disgust transgressions from conventional transgressions. Cognitive and emotional factors play an important role in the judgment of moral/conventional rules, supporting the dual process model.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19623
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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林珠梅. 学前儿童道德与习俗判断的发展及其机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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