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视觉文字加工脑区的形成与发展:来自成年文盲的证据
其他题名The emergence and development of Visual word form area: Evidence from illiterates
刘海程
学位类型博士
导师翁旭初
2012-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词VWFA 梭状回 可塑性 汉字
摘要左外侧梭状回文字加工区(VWFA)是阅读和物体知觉神经机制中研究的热点。VWFA 是如何形成与发展的研究,不仅对理解文字加工和物体识别的机制非常重要,而且能为理解人类大脑的可塑性提供启示。
本研究通过识字量测试、正字法意识等行为测验,筛选文盲被试。对被试进行了系统的阅读培训,并在培训的而不同阶段进行了4 次磁共振扫描。对fMRI数据进行了常规的激活检测、信号强度分析和新开发的Beta 空间分布分析等。
本研究的主要发现可以总结为以下3 点:
(1)培训前被试具有一定的区分字与非字的能力,但VWFA 没有形成;
(2)对她们进行1 个月培训后,其VWFA 能迅速形成,且VWFA 的快速
形成与正字法意识的迅速提高相关;
(3)之后的培训继续对VWFA 进行缓慢的修饰,表现为:VWFA 区域对熟悉或认识汉字的反应逐渐增强而VWFA 的临近区域(如LFFA)对其它类别视觉刺激的反应逐渐减弱。伴随VWFA 缓慢修饰的是精细正字法意识的慢速提高。以上结果提示:(1)中老年人的大脑仍具有很强的可塑性;(2)在耽搁几十年后学习和使用文字,仍然使用与从小接受正规阅读训练的熟练阅读者相同的脑区进行文字视觉加工,提示这个区域具有适合文字视觉加工的生物学属性。
本研究不仅回答了VWFA 如何形成与发展这个神经科学、认知科学领域的重要问题,而且对教育、阅读康复领域,乃至中国(或世界)社会应对加速到来的老龄化社会的挑战,建立“学习型社会”等方面,都有重要的应用价值。
其他摘要As to the neural mechanism of reading and object perception, researchers are focusing on a small area which is on the lateral part of left mid-fusiform area (VWFA). Studies on how this area emerged and changes, not only are important to understanding the mechanism of visual word processing and object perception, but also can help people know more about brain plasticity.
The participants were screened through Chinese characters vocabulary test and orthographic test. They were taught to read Chinese characters and texts in regularly scheduled reading classes. The fMRI data were acquired at four different stages of their training. The analysis of fMRI data includes: statistic maps of functional activation, statistics for BOLD amplitude and maps of beta-value.
The main findings are showed in the followings:
Firstly, before training, VWFA could not be found in the adult illiterate subjects although they can differentiate between characters and non-characters significant better than random level.
Secondly, after 1 month of reading training, VWFA emerged quickly in exactly the same cortical site as normal readers and at the same time, there is also a significant change in participants’ orthographic and lexical sensitivity Thirdly, the reading training then modifed VWFA slowly in two aspects: the BOLD signal to learned or known Chinese characters showed slowly increase and the response amplitude of the neighbor areas such as LFFA to other visual categories decreased slowly.
These results implicate: (1) the human adult brain has profound plasticity; (2) after a delay of about 50 years, the relevant selective cortical region lands in exactly the same place as the VWFA identified in normal readers once one learns to read: this area must have a very significant and special advantage in processing written words.
These findings not only answered the important question in neuroscience and cognitive psychology, that is how VWFA emerge and change, but also have significant practical application in education, reading recovery and building a learning society
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19625
专题健康与遗传心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
刘海程. 视觉文字加工脑区的形成与发展:来自成年文盲的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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