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不确定性对慈善行为的影响
其他题名Uncertainty on Charitable Behavior: National Level and Individual Level Findings
陆柯雯
学位类型硕士
导师任孝鹏
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词不确定性 慈善行为 捐款 志愿服务 帮助陌生人
摘要慈善行为是指牺牲自身的利益去帮助陌生人的行为,对于社会和谐和良性发展非常重要。在综述了影响慈善行为的多种因素的基础上,本文提出了不确定性能够影响慈善行为,即不确定性越强,做出慈善行为的可能性就越低。
研究采用文献研究、二手数据分析、问卷调查、模拟行为实验和启动等方法,从国家水平和个体水平探讨了不确定性与慈善(包括慈善意愿、慈善决策和慈善行为)的关系。并且采用心理测量学的方法,首次编制了一般意义的不确定性量表。主要研究结果如下:
1. 慈善行为(捐款、做志愿者和帮助陌生人)存在国家水平的差异。不确定性规避倾向能够影响国家的慈善水平,对国家之间的慈善差异有一定的解释力。总体而言,不确定性规避越强的国家,其慈善水平越低。
2. 在个体水平上,不确定性能够影响安全性慈善行为的意愿(捐款、做志愿者)和风险性慈善行为的意愿(看见老人摔倒在街上会不会扶),不确定性越高的个体,慈善意愿越低。
3. 不确定性不仅对当下的慈善意愿有所影响,还能够预测未来一段时间的慈善意愿。个体的不确定性对慈善意愿的作用具有持续性,或者说跨时间的稳定性。不确定性越高的个体,未来一段时期内的慈善意愿越低。
4. 除了慈善意愿外,不确定性对慈善决策(囚徒困境中个体的合作性决策)以及实际慈善行为(捐款)也都有显著的影响。不确定性高的个体,在博弈情境下的慈善决策相对更少,实际捐款的金额也相对更少。
5. 自编的不确定性量表共包括2 个因子,内源性的不确定性和外源性的不确定性,基本上反映了个体水平不确定性的来源和表征。信效度均达到了心理测量学的要求。
6. 用自编的不确定性量表测量个体不确定性,发现不确定性能够影响慈善决策。但量表测量的不确定性对实际慈善行为(捐款)没有作用,推测该量表对慈善的敏感度不如单条目。有待未来研究对单条目和量表进一步分析,发掘不确定性影响慈善的内在机制。
7. 通过启动不确定性的不同水平,未发现在慈善行为上有显著变化。基于之前研究的结果,推测为启动效果不够强所致。未来研究可在启动材料和启动方法上加以改进。
其他摘要Charitable behavior is important for modern society which means helping those in need with the cost of money and time and energy of helper. Apart from so many antecedents of charitable behavior, uncertainty is thought to be a new important factor which predicts charity that more uncertainty will lead to less charitable behavior.
This research investigates the relationship between uncertainty and charitable behavior at both national-level and individual-level, and meanwhile develops a general uncertainty scale. There are nine studies which have applied multiple methods like literature review, second-hand data analyses, investigation, game-experiment, simulation and priming. Thousands of participants took part in the research, and stepwise regression analyses, chi-square test, independent sample T-test, EFA, CFA, SEM and other statistical methods were used to test hypotheses. The following are our main findings:
1. There are national-level differences on charitable behavior which refers to donation, volunteering and helping strangers. Uncertainty avoidance gives some explanation to the differences as it predicts national-level charity. Generally speaking, the higher uncertainty avoidance, the less charity would be in a country.
2. At the individual-level, uncertainty predicts willingness of safe charitable behaviors (donation and volunteering) as well as willingness of risky charitable behavior (holding up an old person when seeing him/her fallen on street). The more uncertainty an individual perceives, the less willing is he/she to give help.
3. Uncertainty predicts charitable willingness not only now but also in the future. It suggests that the effect of uncertainty on charity is to some extent stable across time. The higher uncertainty, the less charitable willingness both for now and for a month later.
4. Furthermore, uncertainty can consistently predict the charitable decision (eg. cooperation decision-making in a prisoner dilemma) and the actual charitable behavior (simulated donation). The more uncertainty an individual perceives, the less likely would he/she accept cooperation, and the less money would he/she donate.
5. We have developed a general uncertainty scale which consists of two factors that primarily reflect the sources and characteristics of uncertainty, named the endogenous uncertainty and the exogenous uncertainty. The scale has good reliability and validity.
6. Uncertainty, measured by scale, could marginally predict charitable decision which was indicated by cooperation decision-making in a prisoner dilemma, but has not been confirmed to predict actual donation. By comparing with previous results, we infer that the uncertainty scale may be not as sensitive to charity as the sing-item “I feel confused about my future”. It’s necessary to conduct further studies on the single-item and the scale of uncertainty to explore the underlying mechanism of uncertainty and charity.
7. There shows no changes on charitable behavior by manipulating different degrees of uncertainty. Failure of priming effect probably leads to the result which suggests improvement should be taken on priming materials and priming procedures for the future research.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19633
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陆柯雯. 不确定性对慈善行为的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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