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Alternative TitleThe Role of Manipulability in Oject Identification
Thesis Advisor刘烨
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword可操作性 启动范式 物操作动作 物体识别
Abstract    近些年来,物体的可操作性在物体识别中的作用受到越来越多研究者的关注。物体的可操作性通常是指物体如何被移动或使用的属性或知识。已有研究发现操作动作信息是物体知识表征的重要部分,因而会影响人们对可操作物体的加工和识别。本研究使用启动范式探讨了加工深度对物体操作动作信息激活的影响,并系统考察了结构性和功能性两种不同的操作动作对物体识别的影响。实验1 发现被动观看启动物体,其操作动作信息就足以被激活。实验2a 和ab 使用静态的手部姿势作为启动项,发现只有功能性操作会影响操作动作“冲突”物体的识别,当功能性操作姿势和目标物体的功能性操作一致时,被试对目标物体的命名反应时要显著加快。实验3 使用动态的操作视频为启动项,发现识别操作动作“冲突”物体不仅受到了功能性操作的影响,也会受到结构性操作的影响。实验4 使用动态的手部操作为启动项,发现功能性操作对识别操作动作“非冲突”物体也存在影响。此外,实验2a、2b、实验3 和实验4 均发现操作动作一致性效应存在性别差异,无论是功能性操作一致性效应还是结构性操作一致性效应都主要来源于男性被试的贡献。本研究为理解操作动作信息在物体加工和识别中的作用提供了重要线索。同时,为知识表征的“感觉-运动通道分布”模型提供了新的证据。
Other Abstract In recent years,  the role of manipulability in object identification has drawn much attention from psychologists. Object manipulability is the knowledge regarding how does an individual grasp an object and move it, or use it  by  its function. A growing number of evidence has indicated that manipulation knowledge  is a part of object representation, and therefore, affects object identification process. The present study, with priming paradigm, explored the extent to which an manipulable object is processd  before its manipulation knowledge activated, and systematically examined the different roles played by structural manipulation as well as functional manipulation in the recognition of manipulable objects. In Experiment 1, it was found that passively viewing a manipulable object was sufficient to evoke its manipulability , which in turn affected  the processing of target objects. With static hand gesture as primes, both Experiment 2a and 2b had found that it was only functional manipulation that affected  the processing and identification of “manipulation conflict objects”(objects associated with different structural manipulation and functional manipulation). In Experiment 3 and Experiment 4, instead of static hand gestures, dynamic hand manipulation videos were used as primes, the results showed that only functional manipulation had  consistent and strong effect on  the  recognition of manipulation conflict and non-conflict target objects (object with both structural and functional manipulation, but the two are the same at the initial action stage). Although functional manipulation congruency effects existed in all the four experiments, further analysis  had  demonstrated  that they were largely attributed to male subjects, who generally  have significant  higher  experience  than female subjects  to manipulate the target objects. And while there was no structural manipulation congruency effect in Experiment 3 on the whole, it did emerge in a significant scale only in male subjects. The  results  may suggest that  action priming effect  would be  modulated by individual’s manipulation experience with target objects.  This  research  provided strong evidence for the role of dorsal pathway in object identification that previously considered subserved only by ventral pathway, and also for “sensory-motor model of conceptual knowledge”  arguing that object knowledge was represented in a distributed sensory-motor system in the brain. 
Subject Area基础心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
倪龙. 可操作性在物体识别中的作用[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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