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本族与异族的面孔评价及其对风险决策的影响
其他题名Face Evaluations on Own- and Other-Race Faces and Its Effects on Decision Making
齐玥
学位类型博士
导师张侃 ; 杜峰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词面孔评价 特质推断 印象 决策 种族
摘要面孔评价是指在信息较为匮乏的前提下,人们基于陌生面孔的物理特征对其人格特质的推断。随着不同国家之间的交流日趋频繁,人与人之间的交流不再局限在同一种族之内,而是扩展到了不同种族之间的交往互动。然而,在面孔评价领域,究竟是遵从如同面孔再认中一样的异族效应原则,还是遵从如同情绪识别领域中一样的跨种族一致性原则,以往的研究尚未得出一致结论。基于此,本论文开展了四个研究,探索了本族与异族面孔评价的异同,以及面孔评价对决策的影响和调控。
研究一关注适用于面孔评价的词汇和基于中美被试评价的典型面孔。首先,基于大五人格词汇量表筛选出中美两国被试认为适用于面孔评价的特质词汇。通过主成分分析,建立了面孔特质词汇的三维度模型: 可信度、 支配性、 和紧张感。并将以上三个维度与面孔的吸引力这一物理特征相结合, 分别基于亚洲面孔和高加索面孔,合成出中美两国被试评出的典型面孔模型。
研究二关注信任博弈范式中不同种族面孔可信度对决策行为的影响。 研究发现,人们的信任行为会受面孔可信度的影响。无论是看到亚洲面孔还是高加索面孔,当面孔的可信度较高时,人们会表现出更多的信任行为。并且回归分析的结果表明,人们对他人的信任行为主要基于面孔的可信度,而不是面孔吸引力。在情绪体验上,人们对本族面孔的不公平分配会更加敏感,情绪更消极。分配的公平与否还会影响人们对面孔可信度的评价。
研究三关注风险决策范式中不同种族面孔可信度对决策行为的影响。研究发现,对风险产品的接受程度会受到面孔可信度的调控。当风险产品对应的面孔可信度更高时,对该产品的接受程度和投资金额也会随之升高。且不会受到面孔种族的影响。但决策的风险高低并不会影响人们对面孔可信度的评价。
研究四关注背景信息如何影响面孔评价及决策行为。结果发现,给面孔增加国家信息时并不会影响人们的信任行为,而增加月收入的信息则会影响人们对面孔可信度的评价,并且影响人们的实际信任行为。人们更愿意给月收入较高的面孔,分配更多的金钱。
本论文建立了适用于面孔评价的人格特质词汇的三维度模型。 并系统研究了面孔可信度对信任行为和风险决策的影响,发现不同种族的高可信度面孔都会导致更多的信任行为。这证实了在基于面孔的决策中,存在亚洲面孔和高加索面孔的跨种族一致性。弥补了以往研究中在实验刺激材料和研究范式上的不足,并进一步细化了背景信息的类型及其对面孔评价和决策的影响。
其他摘要Face evaluations refer to judging one’s personality based on the physical features of an unfamiliar face. With the increase in communication between different countries, interpersonal interaction expands to  other  races.  Most  previous  research  about other-race faces focused on face recognition and emotion identity. However, there are only a few  studies  on the facial judgments  of other-race faces, and there is not a consistent conclusion.  Compared to those fragmentary previous work in the facial judgments  area, this paper implements four  studies and makes contributions in  face evaluations on own- and other-race faces and its effects on decision making.
Study 1 focuses on the traits selection and facial judgments  based on  both Chinese and Americans' evaluations. First, subjects from China and United States of America were asked to select the appropriate trait words that they thought could read from one’s  face from ten personality words scales. Using PCA, a three-dimension model of traits were built to describe faces. Further, based on these  three  traits, trustworthiness, tension and dominance,  and also one of physical characteristics, attractiveness, with primary focus on Asian and Caucasian faces, some typical faces were morphed to indicate Chinese and Americans’ evaluations.
Study 2  examines  the influence of facial races and trustworthiness on people’s decision making during trust game. Results showed that people’s trust behaviors are determined by facial judgments on trustworthiness. Regardless of Asian or Caucasian faces, people are more likely to trust others with  faces of higher  trustworthiness. In addition, the regression results indicated that  the trust always comes from trustworthiness of faces, not attractiveness. In emotional experience, people always are more sensitive to unfairness and  feel more  negative for own-race faces. The fairness of assignment will also affect facial judgments on trustworthiness.
Study 3 focuses on the influence of facial races and trustworthiness on risk decisions. We found the acceptance of  risk can be influenced by face evaluation on trustworthiness. The product proposed by  faces with higher  trustworthiness, got higher acceptance and the amount of investment. Besides, this results were consistent between Asian and Caucasian faces. However, risk  level of decisions will not affect facial judgments on trustworthiness.
Study 4  examines  how additional background information affects facial judgments and decisions. The results showed that additional national information will not bring any benefit on people’s trust behaviors, but information about monthly income can affect facial judgment  on trustworthiness and also trust behavior. Generally, people would like to trust and invest in a face with higher income. This paper builds a three dimensional model of traits used on face evaluations.
The results  showed  consistency between Asian and Caucasian faces in the face evaluations and their effects on decision making. This study finds trust behaviors and risk decisions could be modulated by face evaluation on trustworthiness. This work provides  stimuli and research paradigm  that was lacking in previous research, and improves the research of how different types of background information influence our decisions based on faces.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19645
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
齐玥. 本族与异族的面孔评价及其对风险决策的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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