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视觉运动加工能力与汉字阅读的关系
其他题名The relationship between visual motion processing skills and Chinese character reading
钱怡
学位类型博士
导师毕鸿燕
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词视觉运动加工 视觉大细胞-背侧通路, MT 区 汉字阅读 发展性阅读 障碍
摘要阅读加工起始于对文字的基本视觉分析。 作为人类最基本的视觉通路之一的视觉大细胞-背侧通路,其功能与阅读之间的关系近年来越来越受到关注。MT区是大细胞-背侧通路在皮层上的一个重要的组成部分,它主要负责对运动刺激的视觉加工。已有拼音文字研究一致地表明,视觉运动加工能力或 MT 区的功能与阅读关系紧密。汉字作为一种特殊的文字,没有明确的形音对应规则,汉字结构复杂,视觉加工对汉字阅读可能尤为重要。但是,目前关于视觉运动加工能力与汉字阅读的关系研究还较少,还有许多问题未解决。
因此,本研究采用行为测试和fMRI技术,在正常成人、正常儿童、发展性阅读障碍三个群体中, 系统地考察视觉运动加工能力或 MT 功能与汉字阅读的关系。结果表明:
(1)行为水平上,正常成人一致性运动敏感性与快速命名相关显著。神经机制水平上,正常成人 MT区的激活程度与正字法意识、阅读流畅性、快速命名等多种阅读技能均存在相关。MT 区与视觉字形加工脑区(如双侧梭状回等)及语音加工脑区(如左侧背侧额下回)的静息态功能连接与正字法意识、阅读流畅性、快速命名等存在相关。  
(2)行为水平上,正常儿童一致性运动敏感性与正字法意识、快速命名,阅读流畅性、阅读准确性相关。神经机制水平上,虽然正常儿童 MT 区的激活只与快速命名速度有关, 但是静息态功能连接的分析显示正常儿童 MT 区与右侧视觉字形加工脑区的功能连接与正字法意识、快速命名等阅读技能的相关显著,同时 MT 区与左侧语音加工脑区(如左侧背侧额下回)的连接与阅读准确性也存在相关。
(3)汉语发展性阅读障碍的视觉运动加工能力与语音意识、快速命名有关。并且阅读障碍存在视觉运动加工能力的缺陷, 且此缺陷不是由于阅读经验少而导致的。通过基于视觉大细胞-背侧通路的训练,阅读障碍视觉运动加工能力提高的同时,语音意识和快速命名技能也有所提高,这表明视觉大细胞-背侧通路的功能缺陷(视觉运动加工能力缺陷)可能是阅读障碍的原因。
综合以上实验结果,可以看到正常成人、正常儿童、发展性阅读障碍儿童都表现出视觉运动加工能力及 MT 区的功能与汉字阅读的相关关系。但是,这一相关关系在正常阅读者(包括成人和儿童)与阅读障碍中表现可能不同。在正常阅读者中,这一关系主要反映在正字法意识和阅读速度(包括快速命名和阅读流畅性),但是在阅读障碍中,这一关系主要反映在语音意识和快速命名上。这可能与阅读障碍在汉字加工中的特殊策略以及语音意识在汉字阅读发展过程中的作用有关。同时,基于发展性阅读障碍的训练研究还表明视觉大细胞-背侧通路的功能缺陷(视觉运动加工能力缺陷)可能是汉语阅读障碍的原因。
其他摘要Reading starts from the basic visual processing of prints. As one of the basic visual pathways of human beings, magnocellular-dorsal pathway plays an important role in reading. Recently, more and more researches focused on the relationship between the function of magnocellular pathway and reading. Middle temporal area (MT area) is one brain region of this pathway, and responsible for motion processing. Previous alphabetic studies consistently showed that visual motion processing skills or the activities of MT area were closely associated with reading. As a logographic language, Chinese character has no grapheme-phoneme correspondence, while has complex visual structure. Therefore, visual processing might be crucial for Chinese reading. However, there have been few studies to explore the relationship between visual motion processing skills (MT function) and Chinese reading, and many questions remain unsolved.     
The present study adopted behavioral measurements and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique to systematically investigate the relationship between visual motion processing skills (MT function) and Chinese reading among normal adult readers, normal children and developmental dyslexic children. The results showed that,
(1) At the behavioral level, coherent motion sensitivity was significantly correlated with rapid naming speed for adult readers. At the neural level, activation of MT area was correlated with adults’ orthographic awareness, reading fluency and rapid naming. Meanwhile, these reading skills were also related to the strength of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between MT and several reading-related areas (e.g.,visual word form areas, bilateral fusiform gyri; phonological processing area, left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus) .
  (2) At the behavioral level, coherent motion sensitivity was significantly correlated with orthographic awareness, rapid naming, reading fluency and reading accuracy for normal children. At the neural level, MT activities were only correlated with children’s rapid naming. But RSFC analysis showed that the strength of RSFC between MT and right visual word form processing areas was correlated with children’s orthographic awareness and rapid naming speed. Meanwhile, RSFC between MT and left phonological-related areas (e.g., left dorsal inferior frontal gyrus) was correlated with children’s reading accuracy.  
  (3) Coherent motion sensitivity was correlated with phonological awareness and rapid naming for Chinese developmental dyslexia (DD). Chinese DD had deficits in visual motion processing, which was not induced by impoverished reading experience. After visual intervention based on magnocellular-dorsal pathway, dyslexic children improved phonological awareness and rapid naming as well as coherent motion sensitivity. The results suggested that the deficits in magnocellular-dorsal pathway (deficient visual motion processing skills) might be the cause of Chinese DD.
In summary, the relationship between visual motion processing skill (MT function) and Chinese reading skills consistently existed in normal adult readers, normal children, and developmental dyslexic children. But, the relationship exhibited discrepancy between normal readers and DD. For normal readers, the visual motion processing skill was more relevant to orthographic awareness and reading speed (including rapid naming and reading fluency). However, it was correlated with phonological awareness and rapid naming for DD, which might be related to the specific processing strategy in reading for DD and the specific role of phonological awareness in Chinese reading development. Meanwhile, the present training study on DD suggested that deficits in magnocellular-dorsal pathway (deficient visual motion processing skills) might be the cause of Chinese DD, supporting the magnocellular deficit theory of DD.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19648
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
钱怡. 视觉运动加工能力与汉字阅读的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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