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分裂型特质的结构、稳定性以及发展轨迹
其他题名The Invariance Structure and Trajectory of Schizotypy
史海松
学位类型博士
导师陈楚侨
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词分裂型特质 结构 不变性精神分裂症谱系 追踪 潜类别发展模型 分析 发展轨迹
摘要分裂型特质是精神分裂症的一种潜在倾向。在正常群体中对分裂型特质进行研究,有利于揭示精神分裂症的发病进程。研究表明分裂型特质具有阳性和阴性两因素结构,然而,其结构在中国人群中还没有研究,在精神分裂症谱系中是否存在相同的结构也不清楚。更重要的是,分裂型特质的追踪研究还比较少,其发展变化状况还不太清楚,而且分裂型特质的症状、情绪、认知、社会功能等的变化情况也很少研究。在发展过程中分裂型特质可能存在不同的发展轨迹,了解其不同的发展轨迹对早期识别与干预有重要意义。
为了更好地考察分裂型特质的结构及其跨时间和跨样本的不变性,以及分裂型特质随时间的变化过程,我们通过三个研究来进行探讨。研究一考察分裂型特质在中国人群中的结构及其跨时间的稳定性。在 1981名大学生中施测了Chapman 量表(包括知觉异常量表、神秘观念量表、社会快感缺失量表、躯体快感缺失量表),并且在 6 个月之后进行了重测。结果表明,分裂型特质在中国人群中具有和其他文化一样的两因子结构,即阴性分裂型特质(包括社会快感缺失和躯体快感缺失)和阳性分裂型特质(包括知觉异常和神秘观念)两因子。而且在 6个月之后重测时仍然具有相同的结构,说明分裂型特质的结构维度具有跨时间的稳定性。
研究二考察分裂型特质的结构在精神分裂症谱系不同群体中的跨样本不变性。在精神分裂症患者、精神分裂症患者未患病的一级亲属和大学生中施测了Chapman量表。结果表明,分裂型特质在不同的群体中具有结构稳定性,在不同群体中均表现出阴性和阳性两个维度。说明分裂型特质在精神分裂症谱系中具有跨样本不变性。
研究三考察分裂型特质在大学生群体中的发展轨迹。在 18个月内通过 4个时间点的追踪研究,考察分裂型特质不同的发展轨迹,有效被试为 1541 名大学生。通过潜类别发展模型分析,确定存在四种不同的潜在类别,即稳定的分裂型特质组、低分裂型特质组(低分组)、快速激活组、低激活组,这些组具有不同的发展轨迹,在情绪、社会功能等方面的发展状况也存在差异。稳定的分裂型特质组在分裂型特质上一直维持较高的分数,低分裂型特质组在分裂型特质上一直得分较低。快速激活组和低激活组在基线测量时分裂型特质得分较低,但是,快速激活组在分裂型特质得分上持续上升,而低激活组在分裂型特质得分上随时间缓慢上升,维持在一个比较稳定的状态。统计分析表明,稳定的分裂型特质组和低分裂型特质组相比表现出较差的情绪和社会功能。快速激活组在最后一个时间点报告较差的情绪和社会功能,而低激活组和低分裂型特质组相似。
  总之,结果发现在中国人群中,Chapman 量表具有稳定的两因素结构,即阴性分裂型特质和阳性分裂型特质。这个因素结构具有跨时间和跨样本的不变性。追踪数据表明,在大学生样本中,根据分裂型特质得分的不同发展轨迹可以区分出4组。稳定的分裂型特质组和低分裂型特质组相比表现出稳定的情绪和社会功能缺损。更重要的是,还发现了快速激活组和低激活组,快速激活组在最后一个时间点报告较差的情绪和社会功能,而低激活组和低分裂型特质组相似。这些结果表明由Chapman量表所测量的分裂型特质具有一致和稳定的结构,同时提示根据发展轨迹和功能结果区分不同分裂型特质亚组的重要性。
其他摘要Schizotypy is a set of traits that conveys liability to develop schizophrenia. Studying schizotypy in the healthy population may facilitate the understanding of the underlying pathological process of transition into schizophrenia. Previous studies have  shown that schizotypy has a two factor structure: positive and negative schizotypy. However, all previous studies were conducted with Caucasian samples. It is unclear whether the same factor structure applies in the Chinese population. More importantly, few longitudinal studies have examined the developmental trajectories of schizotypy.   
The present study examined the factor structure of schizotypy in the Chinese population using the Chapman Scales. In particular, we examined the stability of the factor structure across samples using invariance model analysis and explored the trajectories of schizotypy over time using a longitudinal study design.
Study one examined the factor structure of schizotypy and its invariance over time in a Chinese sample. The Chapman scales  (including the Perceptual Aberration Scale, the Magical Thinking Scale, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale and the Revised Physical Anhedonia Scale)  were administered to 1981 college students at baseline and were re-administered again six months later. We found a two-factor structure for schizotypy that was stable across the two time points.
Study two examined the structure invariance of the two-factor structure of schizotypy in several samples including patients with schizophrenia, their non-psychotic first-degree relatives, and college students with and without schizotypal features. We found that the same two-factor structure obtained from Study one was also stable across these different samples.  
Study three examined the trajectories of schizotypy in 1541 college students using a prospective longitudinal study design. The Chapman scales were administered to the same sample at 6-month intervals up to 18 months. Latent class growth analysis showed that there were four latent groups showing distinct trajectories, namely “stable schizotypy”, “low schizotypy”  (healthy), “high reactive schizotypy” and “low reactive schizotypy”. These four groups were distinguishable by their trajectories and emotional and social functioning. The “high schizotypy” group showed a persistently high score in various schizotypy traits, whereas the “low schizotypy” group showed consistently low levels of schizotypy traits. The “high reactive schizotypy” group and the “low reactive schizotypy” group were associated with low schizotypy scores at baseline. However, the “high reactive schizotypy” group showed a significant increase in schizotypy traits over time, whereas the “low reactive schizotypy” group showed a gradual increase in schizotypy traits over time. The “stable schizotypy” group had the worst emotional and social functioning compared to the “low schizotypy” group. The “high reactive schizotypy” group also reported significantly worst performance in emotional and social functioning at the last time point, whereas the “low reactive schizotypy” group was more similar to the “low schizotypy” group.  
Taken together, our findings suggest that there is a consistent and robust two-factor structure of schizotypy captured by the Chapman scales in the Chinese population. This factor structure is consistent and stable across time and samples. The longitudinal data suggests that there may be four distinct trajectories of schizotypy in the Chinese population. Individuals with “high schizotypy” showed consistently worse emotional and social functioning compared to individuals with “low schizotypy”. More importantly, we found two other possible trajectories of schizotypy: “high reactive schizotypy” and “low reactive schizotypy” in our sample. The “high reactive schizotypy” group also reported significantly worse performance in emotional and social functioning at the last time point, whereas the “low reactive schizotypy” group was more similar to the “low schizotypy” group. These findings highlight the consistent structure and stability of schizotypy captured by the Chapman scales, and also support the importance of subtyping schizotypy because of their different trajectories and outcomes.  
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19655
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
史海松. 分裂型特质的结构、稳定性以及发展轨迹[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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