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从维度重叠理论视角探究认知控制的模块化组织
其他题名Examining the Modular Structure of Cognitive Control with Dimensional Overlap Theory
王凯
学位类型博士
导师刘勋
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词认知控制 维度重叠 刺激-反应协同性 EEG fMRI
摘要认知控制是人类核心的认知功能,通过这种自上而下的对其他基础心理过程的控制,人们的目标导向的行为得以顺利完成。然而目前对于认知控制的加工进程以及模块化组织的研究还处于探索阶段。本系列研究着眼于认知控制研究中经典的刺激-反应协同性范式(冲突范式),通过考察个体对认知冲突的加工来探究认知控制的机制。
我们借鉴了维度重叠理论的分类体系,将该理论认为的两类异质的典型冲突,刺激-刺激(S-S)和刺激-反应(S-R)冲突集合在同一个实验任务中,开发出 Simon-颜色-Stroop任务和 Simon-空间-Stroop任务,较好地控制了与自上而下控制无关的混淆因素。我们通过行为、EEG、fMRI等手段,从多个侧面探讨两种冲突在协同性效应以及冲突适应效应方面相同和相异的的心理和神经机制,从而为以维度重叠理论为基础的认知控制的模块化组织提供实证依据。
研究一通过事件相关电位分析发现S-S与 S-R冲突加工在时程上的差异发生在 N2成分的早阶段。两者在 theta波段的幅值时频特性类似,S-R冲突又特异性地调节了beta波段的震荡。研究二发现冲突适应仅可能在相邻试次为同一类别时发生。该效应不可以归因为自下而上的因素,说明两种冲突加工涉及不同的加工模块。研究三发现这种类别内的冲突适应与较早的ERP成分N2相关联,提示冲突适应直接调节的是冲突监测阶段的机能。同时两种冲突适应都调节了 theta波段的神经震荡。研究四发现S-S和S-R类别内冲突效应和冲突适应既激活了一些相同和临近的脑区,也有各自不同的激活模式。尤其是S-R冲突更多地激活了扣带回(冲突监测的典型脑区)的中前部,而S-S冲突在该区域的激活较少且更靠前。两种冲突都类似地激活了负责执行控制的背外侧前额叶区域。心理生理交互作用(PPI)分析表明,前扣带回在 S-S和S-R的冲突加工中调节了不同的背外侧前额叶区域。
综合以上各个层面上的证据,在冲突加工较早的冲突监测阶段,S-S与S-R的冲突加工表现出时间进程和脑激活上较明显的差异性;而在之后的执行控制阶段,二者拥有较多的共性。我们因此认为认知控制很可能是由不同的冲突监测模块和相同的执行控制模块组成的。
其他摘要Cognitive control, mainly responsible for regulation of basic cognitive processing to ensure the performance of goal-oriented behaviors, is regarded as one of the core psychological functions of human being. However the modular organization of cognitive control is not clear yet. With reference to the dimensional overlap taxonomy of stimulus-response compatibility paradigms typically used to investigate cognitive control mechanisms through conflict solving processes, we combined two typical kinds of cognitive conflict, the stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and the stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts, into single tasks, the Simon-color-Stroop task and the Simon-spatial-Stroop task, with confounding factors of bottom-up nature well controlled. Through behavioral, EEG and fMRI measures, we probed into the issue of modular organization of cognitive control (based on the DO theory) by exploring the common and distinct psychological mechanisms and neural correlates of conflict processing and conflict adaptation (CA) effects of S-S and S-R conflicts.
Through event-related analysis of EEG signals, study 1 revealed that S-S conflict processing starts earlier than that of S-R conflict on the N2 component. They modulated the theta band power in a similar way, while S-R conflict additionally enhanced power within the beta band. In study 2, we found that significant CA effects can be observed only when the neighboring trials belonged to a same conflict type, a phenomenon indicates the existence of distinct processing modules for S-S and S-R conflicts. Besides, we showed that this phenomenon was attributable to top-down control factors only. In study 3, these within domain CA effects were found on the N2 component, the earliest conflict-related ERP component indicating that the CA effect primarily modulates the conflict monitoring stage of cognitive control. Besides, these CA effects modulated theta band power in a similar way.
Our fMRI analysis on conflict effects and within domain CA effects (study 4) revealed both common and distinct activation between two kinds of conflicts. Importantly, more activation for the S-R type was found with the middle and anterior potions of the Cingular cortex (ACC),while S-S activation in this region was weaker and more anterior. The two conflict types activated similar areas within the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC).
Psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated that the ACC modulated distinct regions within the DLPFC during S-S and S-R conflict processing.
In summary, in the presumed conflict monitoring stage of cognitive control, S-S and S-R showed important differences on temporal and brain activation patterns; while on the executive control stage, they seem to share many common properties. These evidences supported the idea that cognitive control may be consisted of distinct conflict monitoring modules (within the ACC) but a common executive control module (DLPFC).
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19711
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
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王凯. 从维度重叠理论视角探究认知控制的模块化组织[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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