|其他题名||A two-dimensional evaluation system for mindfulness meditative state: attentional stability and awareness|
|关键词||冥想 正念 注意 觉知 注意瞬脱|
|摘要||长期冥想练习对个体身心健康的提升已经得到广泛的实证研究支持。而关于短期冥想练习对个体身心健康的效果及其机制方面的研究， 目前在学术界尚未得到统一的结论。原因之一可能是，新手由于个体差异，在最初阶段的练习中经历了不同的状态。然而，目前心理学界却少有研究关注如何监测、评估和提升冥想新手在练习过程中的状态。为了解决这个问题，本论文建立了一个包括 “注意”和“觉知”两个维度的评估体系，并通过两个研究从行为和神经生理水平，评估该二维指标的结构效度和预测效度。|
研究一招募无冥想经验的健康大学生被试，要求他们闭眼休息或学习观呼吸冥想。被试在冥想练习或休息过程中按照一定的频率（2 min/ 3 min/ 4 min）评估自己的注意状态和觉知状态。实验前使用数字划消测验、内隐联想测验和积极情绪-消极情绪问卷测量被试的注意水平、内隐情绪倾向和外显情绪水平，实验时采集在不同条件下进行正念冥想练习或自然休息过程中被试报告的注意程度、觉知程度和脑电数据（实验三） ，对二维指标的结构效度、以及使用二维指标甄别被试不同意识状态的敏感性进行行为学和神经生理水平上的检验。研究一发现： （1）被试在冥想和休息时报告的注意程度与划消绩效显著正相关，而觉知程度与划消绩效无显著相关。根据觉知程度的高低，将被试划分为高、第觉知组后分别考察两组被试内隐-外显情绪的一致性。结果发现，高觉知组中个体的内隐积极情绪倾向和外显的消极情绪程度显著负相关，而第觉知组中，内隐-外显情绪无显著相关性。 （2）与单独使用注意维度或觉知维度相比，综合使用“注意-觉知”二维指标可以灵敏地反映出不同的练习状态。具体地说，高报告频率下冥想的个体，报告高觉知、高注意状态的比例更高，而低报告频率下冥想或自然休息的个体则不能在注意、觉知二维度上同时保持较高水平。 （3）对冥想或休息过程中，不同状态下的脑电数据进行功率谱和微状态分析，发现不同状态有不同的神经活动特征。具体地说，更高的注意程度伴随着更强的 beta 波段活动；而
研究二首先使用注意瞬脱的双刺激后掩蔽范式（Target Mask - Target Mask, TM-TM）和 ERP 技术，探索了 6 天的短期正念冥想练习对健康大学生注意瞬脱效应的改善效果，及可能的心理学和认知神经机制。其次，研究二还检验了使用 “注意-觉知”二维指标对正念练习效果的预测效度。研究二的结果发现： （1）与等待对照组相比，6 天的短期正念冥想练习，可以有效改善个体在 TM-TM 范式中的注意瞬脱效应； （2）训练后冥想组头皮顶部电极处 T1 诱发的 P3b 波幅显著低于等待对照组，而 T1 诱发的 P3b 的潜伏期的缩短量与注意瞬脱的改善程度显著正相关，该结果表明正念练习改善注意瞬脱效应的机制，可能受益于练习对个体认知加工效率的提升；（3）冥想组中，注意瞬脱效应的改善程度与个体第一次正念练习过程中的觉知程度、以及高觉知水平对应状态的出现百分比显著正相关，表明二维指标可以预测短期正念冥想练习的效果。
|其他摘要||The benefit effects of long-term meditation practice on physical and psychological health have been widely supported by researches. However, studies about the effects of short-term meditation have not yet got a unified conclusion. One reason might be that novices could experience different state due to their differences of the meditation traits or skills. But, by now, few studies focus on how to evaluate, monitor and improve the meditative state of novices. In order to solve this problem, the present study established a two-dimensional evaluation system, including both attentional stability and awareness, for mindfulness meditative state assessment. Two studies were conducted, using different experimental paradigms and EEG (or ERP) techniques, to evaluate the structure validity and the predictive validity of this two-dimensional evaluation system.|
Health college students who had no meditation experiences participated in study 1 and study 2. In study 1, participants were instructed to do meditation practice or have a rest with eyes closed. They were asked to evaluate their attentional stability and awareness once every 2 min, 3 min, or 4 min. Number cancellation test, implicit association test, and Positive and Negative Affect Scale were used to test the attention ability, implicit emotional tendency and explicit emotional status. During meditation practices or rest condition, the subjective reported attention score and awareness score, as well as EEG data, were recorded. Results of study 1 showed that: (1) the attention score were significantly positively correlated with cancellation test performance. The awareness scores could reflect the consistent degree of the implicit-explicit emotions. To be specific, there was a significant negative relationship between the index of implicit association test and the explicit negative emotion statues in the sub-group that participants reported higher awareness score. (2) Compared with using attention score or awareness score along, the combined utilization of this tow dimensions were more sensitive to reflect different states of meditation practice or natural rest. Specifically, states that characterized by high awareness and high attentional stability were more frequently reported among participants who did meditation practice under high report frequency, but it was hard to maintain high level in attention and awareness simultaneously among individuals who mediated or rested with low report frequency. (3) The results of Power spectrum analysis indicated that higher attentional stability correlated with higher beta power and higher awareness level correlated with higher alpha and beta power and lower theta power. Microstates analysis also provided additional evidence for the different neuro activity paten under different awareness levels.
In study 2, we first used a Target Mask - Target Mask (TM-TM) paradigm to explore the effect of a 6-day mindfulness meditation on the reduction of attentional blink (AB) magnitude. The related psychological and neurocognitive mechanisms were also investigated using ERP technique. On the basis of results that short-term meditation could significantly improve the AB task performance, further analysis was conducted to test the predictive validity of the two-dimensional evaluation system under the TM-TM AB paradigm. In study 2 we found that: (1) compared with the waiting list group, the AB magnitude was significantly reduced in short-term meditation training group. (2) After training, the amplitude of T1-induced P3b in meditation group was significantly smaller than that in waiting list group. As to the latency of T1-induced P3b, the amount of shortening positively correlated with the reduction of AB magnitude. These results suggested that the reduction of AB magnitude in meditation training group maybe benefit from the promotion of information process efficiency that was caused by meditation practice. (3) The reduction of AB magnitude in meditation training group positively correlated with the awareness score and the occurrence proportion of state which characterized by high awareness and moderate attentional stability. These results implicated that the two-dimensional evaluation system could predict the beneficial effect of short-term mindfulness meditation practice.
In summary, the present research, for the first time, provided the behavioral and neuroscience evidences for the feasibility of using a two-dimensional evaluation system to assess the mindfulness meditative state among novices. These results could also help people to further understand the mechanisms of meditation practice and thus establish more personalized and efficient meditation training programs for novices.
|王偲偲. “注意-觉知”二维指标对正念冥想状态的评估效果[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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