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手与刺激间距离对视觉认知加工的影响与机制
其他题名Spatial Stimulus-Response Mapping, Emotional Processing Orienting Attention Altered in the Near-hand Space
王小桃
学位类型博士
导师张侃 ; 杜峰
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词手与刺激间距离 Simon 效应 情绪加工 oddball 任务 事件相关电 位
摘要把手放在刺激旁边会对视觉注意和视觉认加工产生影响,这种现象被称为是手近效应。手近效应的研究有利于进一步了解身体与环境对视觉认知的共同塑造作用。但现有关于手近效应的研究还比较少,关于手近效应产生的机制仍旧不清楚。本论文采用双手手近手远范式,通过对比手近与手远两种条件下的差异,考察刺激-反应的联结,情绪加工和朝向注意是否会受手与刺激间距离的调节,并通过事件相关电位(ERP)技术探讨手近效应的神经机制。本论文总共包括四个研究。
研究一采用视觉运动 Simon 任务和语义 Simon 任务,考察手与刺激间距离对刺激-反应的空间联结和语义联结的调节。结果发现:1)相比于手远时,手近时的视觉运动 Simon 效应更大,并且 Simon 效应的增大不是由于刺激呈现的非对称性,手的可见性和手的高度不同造成的。该结果说明手近时加强了空间信息的加工,增强了刺激-反应的空间联结。2)手与刺激间距离对语义Simon效应没  有调节作用,表现为语义 Simon 效应在手近和手远两种条件下没有显著差异。该结果说明手与刺激间距离时对语义信息的加工没有影响,对刺激-反应的语义联结没有调节作用。
研究二采用 ERP 技术考察手与刺激间距离对视觉运动 Simon 效应调节的时间进程。结果发现 1)手近时的 N2 波幅显著大于手远时,说明手近时不相关维度(空间信息)吸引更多注意,得到更强加工。2)手近时一致条件与不一致条件下 N2 波幅的差异小于手远时,而一致条件与不一致条件下反应时的差异大于手远时。该结果说明手近时对冲突的监察不足。3)手近时 P3波幅显著小于手远时,但 P3潜伏期显著短于手远时,说明手近时对刺激相关维度的加工效率更高。4)一致条件与不一致条件下P3波幅的差异不存在手近手远的差异,说明手与刺激间距离对视觉运动 Simon 效应的调节不是发生在反应选择阶段。综上所述,
研究二结果说明手与刺激间距离对视觉认知 Simon 效应的调节作用发生在较早的冲突监察阶段,而不是晚期的反应选择阶段。
研究三考察手与刺激间距离对情绪加工的影响。实验5采用图片情绪Stroop任务,要求被试忽略图片的内容,对图片边框的颜色进行反应。结果发现相比于手远时,手近时负性刺激的反应时显著延长,而正性刺激和中性刺激的反应时没有手近手远的差异。实验 6 采用 ERP 技术,记录被试观看情绪图片时的脑电反应。结果发现,手近时负性刺激诱发的 LPP 波幅显著大于手远时,而中性刺激诱发的 LPP 波幅没有手近手远的差异。因此研究三两个实验一致地说明手近时负性刺激得到更强加工,吸引了更多注意,这可能是因为手近时防御系统得到了更强激活。
研究四采用ERP技术考察手与刺激间距离对选择性注意和朝向注意的调节。研究四采用视觉三刺激 oddball 任务,发现 P3a 的适应效应受手与刺激间距离的调节,表现为手近时 P3a的适应效应小于手远时,而P3b不受手与刺激间距离的调节。该结果说明手近时对分心刺激的朝向注意比手远时维持更久,这可能与手近时防御系统得到更强激活有关。
本论文结果 1)支持手近效应的视触双通道神经元的假设,也部分支持两条视觉通路相互拮抗的假设;2)支持以手为中心的空间表征方式的存在;3)说明近手空间不只与目标导向的行为相关,也与防御行为相关。
其他摘要Visual processing near the hands differs in several ways from that far from the hands. This phenomenon was called ―hand proximity effect‖. Previous studies have found that hand proximity affected attention, visual perception, working memory, semantic processing and cognitive control. The present dissertation examined whether spatial stimulus-response (S-R) mapping, emotional processing and orienting attention are modulated by the hand-stimulus proximity.  
We followed Abrams et al. (2008) to manipulated hand-stimulus proximity, that is, the hands were held on the edges of the monitor in the hand-proximal condition, but laid upon their legs in the hand-distal condition (the posture had some changes across experiments). The present dissertation included four studies in total.  
Study 1 examined whether spatial S-R mapping is modulated by hand-stimulus proximity. The results showed that the visual-motor Simon effect was enhanced near the hands compared to far from hands, while the semantic Simon effect was not modulated by the hand-stimulus proximity. The results indicated hand-stimulus proximity modualted spatial S-R mapping, but did not modulate semantic S-R mapping.
Study 2 used ERP technique to explore which processing stage is modulated by hand-stimulus proximity in the visual-motor Simon task. We found that N2 amplitude was enhanced near the hands, and the difference of N2 amplitude between the compatible and incompatible trials was reduced near the hands compared to far from the hands. The findings suggest that hand-stimulus proximity modulates early stage of conflict processing.
Study 3 examined whether emotional processing is modulated by hand-stimulus proximity. Experiment 5 used pictorial emotional Stroop task, and found a slower response time (RT) for the negative stimuli, but not for the positive and neutral stimuli, near the hands than far from the hands. Experiment 6 found that the amplitude of LPP elicited by negative stimuli was larger in near-hand space than in far from hand space. However, the amplitude of LPP elicited by neutral stimuli was not modulated by hand-stimulus proximity. The findings in Study 3 suggestes the negative emotion was enhanced near the hands, while, neither the neutral nor the positive emotions were affected by the hand-stimulus proximity.  
Study 4 examined whether orienting attention is modulated by hand-stimulus proximity. A visual three-stimulus oddball task was used in the study 4. The results found that the adaptation of P3a was modulated by hand-stimulus proximity. More specifically, the reduction of P3a amplitude between repeated block was less when hands were proximal to the stimuli compared to when hands were distal to the stimuli. The findings of Study 4 indicate that attention sustains to the novelty for a longer time near the hands than far from hands.
The present dissertation found that putting the hands near the stimuli enhanced spatial S-R spatial mapping, enhanced negative emotional processing, but attenuated the adaptation of P3a. The present findings are consistent with the bimodal visuo-tactile neurons hypothesis, and suggesting a hand-centered spatial representation and the defensive properties of the near-hand space.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19718
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王小桃. 手与刺激间距离对视觉认知加工的影响与机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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