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我国自然灾难幸存者创伤后成长的内容与因素结构: 基于访谈与问卷调查的研究
其他题名The content and factor structure of Posttraumatic Growth of Chinese natural disaster survivors: based on qualitative and quantitative studies
吴恺君
学位类型硕士
导师张雨青
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词创伤后成长 自然灾难 创 因素分析 量表编制 文化差异
摘要目的:创伤后成长(Posttraumatic growth, PTG)是指个体在应对灾难后生活的过程中,发生的积极心理变化,和获得的个人心理成长。其与创伤后应激障碍(Posttraumatic stress disorder, PTSD)同为常见的创伤后心理反应。
目前,国际上最常用的PTG 测量工具为创伤后成长量表(Posttraumatic growth inventory, PTGI)。该量表的开发与修订都基于美国为主的西方文化背景,且有研究提示,创伤后成长在表达程度、内容和量表结构方面,在不同文化背景的被试中都有一定的差异。因此 PTGI 在经过翻译后在中国文化背景下的使用具有一定的文化和语言的局限性。本研究选取中国文化背景人群作为被试,采用访谈、问卷调查等研究方法,以期了解中国文化背景下创伤后成长的表达内容及其因素结构特点,并提供适合我国人群的创伤后成长测量工具,为创伤后成长的本土化研究提供进一步的支持。
方法:研究一,通过目的抽样选取59 名舟曲泥石流幸存者,采用半结构访谈法,了解被试的创伤后成长表达内容。通过对访谈内容的转录和编码,研究二,通过方便抽样选取318 名彝良地震幸存者,采用问卷调查法,回收创伤后成长量表初始版数据。对回收数据进行整理分析,采用探索性因素分析对各条目进行筛选。 研究三,通过方便抽样,选取1077 名芦山地震幸存者,采用问卷调查法。对回收数据进行整理分析。将数据随机分半,将其中一半再次使用探索性因素分析,另一半数据进行验证性因素分析,并对因素结构进行信效度分析。 结果:根据访谈编码结果形成编码手册,获得 7个一级分类,26 个二级分类,78个三级分类,并根据编码手册编制出包含56 个条目的创伤后成长量表初始版。通过探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析形成自编创伤后成长量表最终版,包括五个因素,20个条目,这五个因素为:珍惜与憧憬、独立与成熟、良好的心境、人际关系的改善、对国家的积极信念。信效度检验提示该量表具有良好的内部一致性信度和相容效度。
结论:创伤后成长具有普遍性,且表达内容广泛多样化,具有一定的个体差异。自编创伤后成长量表具有良好的信效度指标和文化适用性,且其在内容和结构上与PTGI 有一定的差异。
其他摘要Objective  
Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a serious of positive psychological changes and personal mental growth after experiencing traumatic events. Along with posttraumatic  stress disorder (PTSD), PTG is one of the most common posttraumatic psychological reactions. At present, the most widely used measurement of PTG is Posttraumatic growth inventory (PTGI). The development and revision of this inventory were all based on western cultural, such as American cultural. Some researches indicate that the level, content and factor structure of PTG are different in different cultural backgrounds. Therefore, the using of the translated version of PTGI in China has some limitations considering the differences in cultural and language. In this research, we chose Chinese survivors after natural disasters as subjects. By using quantitative and qualitative methods, we aimed at exploring the content and factor structure of PTG under Chinese cultural background. We wish to provide more support for the localization research of PTG in China.
Method
Study one used purposive sampling to recruited 59 survivors of Zhouqu debris flow. We used semi-structured interview to record the content of the positive psychological changed of survivors. Then we developed a coding manual after the transcription and coding. Study two used convenience sampling to recruited 318 survivors of Yiliang earthquake. We used questionnaire method to get the data of the initial version of Chinese PTG Inventory for natural disaster survivors. Study three used convenience sampling to recruited 1077 survivors of Lushan earthquake. We randomly half split the data. We analyzed the half data by using exploring factor analysis. Then we analyzed  the other half data by using confirmatory factor analysis.
Results
Based on the interviews and coding manual, we acquired 7 first classifications, 26 second classifications and 78 third classifications. Besides, we developed the initial version of Chinese PTG Inventory for natural disaster survivors with 56 items.We analyzed the data by using exploring factor analysis.  After the EFA, the inventory contained 20 items and 5 dimensions.  These five dimensions are cherish and hope, independence and mature, good mood, development of personal relationship and positive beliefs of the country. The results showed that the fit indices were acceptable, which indicated that the data fit the model well. The test of validity and reliability showed that the inventory has good level of internal consistency reliability and congruent validity.
Conclusions
The development of posttraumatic growth is widespread, and the content of PTG is various. The self-made inventory has good level of internal consistency reliability, congruent validity  and applicability under the Chinese culture.  What’s more, the content and  structure  of self-made PTGI are different from the standard PTGI.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19723
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中科院心理所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吴恺君. 我国自然灾难幸存者创伤后成长的内容与因素结构: 基于访谈与问卷调查的研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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