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Alternative TitleA comparison of cognitive and neural mechanisms between heroin dependence and pathological gambling: Reward processing and cognitive control in addiction
Thesis Advisor隋南
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword海洛因成瘾 病理性赌博 奖赏决策 抑制控制 功能性磁共振成像
Abstract研究药物成瘾的形成和发展机制对成瘾疾病的预防和治疗具有重要的意义。已有的研究提示,药物成瘾的形成可能受到个体易感素质和药物作用的双重影响,这种混合效应是困扰成瘾机制研究的重要问题之一。病理性赌博在许多方面与药物成瘾极为相似,已被DSM-V 正式界定为一种非物质成瘾。赌博成瘾排除了药物的干扰作用,为研究成瘾的原始机制提供了理想的模型。药物成瘾和赌博成瘾的比较有助于将药物的效应分离,揭示成瘾的一般途径和共同基础。
Other AbstractResearch on the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction is crucial to its prevention and treatment. Previous studies have implied that both individual susceptibility and neurotoxicity of drugs may be involved in the development of drug addiction and the confusion effect of these factors has been an obstacle to studying the mechanisms of drug addiction. As a non-substance induced behavioral addiction formally included in the DSM-V, pathological gambling (PG) shares many similarities with drug addiction. However, PG does not involve the neurotoxicity associated with drug use, thus it offers an opportunity to study the mechanisms of addiction without drug-related effects. It is believed that a comparison of PG and drug addiction may help dissociate the specific effects of chronic drug use from the vulnerabilities that predispose addiction.
Recently the dual-system theories of addiction have paid much attention on the reward/affective system (e.g. vmPFC, OFC, insula, amygdala, striatum) and the cognitive control/reflective system (e.g. dlPFC, ACC, IFG), which functioning may be disrupted in addiction. However, whether these two systems are disrupted in both PG and drug addiction is unclear.
In the present study, neurocognitive aspects of pathological gamblers (PGs), heroin addicts (HAs) and a group of age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls were assessed by well-constructed neuropsychological tasks. In Study 1, affective decision-making was measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), risk-taking behavior was assessed by the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), and reward/punishment sensitivity was assessed using the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SRSPQ). In Study 2, working memory was assessed using the Self-ordered Pointing Test (SOPT), and reversal learning was measured by the Reversal Learning Task (RLT). Moreover, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the neural circuitry associated with impaired reward-based/ affective decision-making in the IGT (Study 3) and response inhibition in the Go/No Go task (Study 4) among PGs and HAs compared with controls.
The results showed that: (1) both PGs and HAs showed significant deficits in affective decision-making, guided by immediate prospects, oblivious to future consequences, and years of heroin use were correlated negatively with decision-making performance in heroin addicts; (2) deficits in working memory and reversal learning were also detected in HAs, with longer duration of heroin use associated with more severe working memory deficits, while PGs showed non-impaired performance on working memory and reversal learning; (3) Has showed hyporesponsiveness of the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus compared to healthy controls during experiencing reward outcome (win money), and both PGs and HAs showed hyporesponsiveness of the orbital frontal cortex and the insular cortex during experiencing punishment outcome (lose money) in the IGT; (4) HAs showed hyporesponsiveness of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during response inhibition in the Go/No Go task, while PGs did not show hyporesponsiveness of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during response inhibition compared to controls.
Our findings indicate that heroin dependence is characterized by deficits of the reward/affective system and the cognitive control/reflective system, implying a dual-disordered neurophysiological model of addiction, by contrast, PG is associated with impairments in the reward/affective system, especially the circuitry connected to negative affects such as loss. Deficits of the affective system may thus serve as one common neural mechanism of HA and PG.
Subject Area医学心理学
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
严万森. 海洛因成瘾与赌博成瘾的认知神经机制比较研究:奖赏加工和认知控制在成瘾中的作用及其机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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