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幼儿执行功能结构及电子媒体使用对其发展的影响
其他题名The Structure of Executive Function in Preschool Children and the Influence of Electronic Media Use
杨晓辉
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2015-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词执行功能结构 幼儿 媒体使用 媒体效果
摘要执行功能(executive function, EF)是一种复杂的认知调节系统功能,是与个体认知和社会性发展密切相关的一种重要能力,幼儿期是执行功能发展的重要阶段。关于幼儿执行功能结构的整体性和可分离性还存在争议。电子媒体如电视、电子游戏和电脑等作为儿童发展的重要环境变量会对儿童执行功能的发展产生重要的影响。本研究目的在于探明中国幼儿执行功能的结构,并研究不同类型电子媒体的使用情况对执行功能的影响。
研究一使用验证性因素分析,在中国幼儿群体中探索执行功能的结构,并分析其与幼儿智力发展之间的关系。研究二基于执行功能结构分析的结果,一方面,使用父母报告的方式获得儿童媒体使用情况,从媒体效果的长时影响角度考察不同类型媒体的日常使用对幼儿执行功能发展的影响。另一方面,基于媒体影响的短时效果,考察电视节目和电子游戏的短时接触对执行功能任务的影响。
研究一发现中国幼儿的执行功能表现出相互关联又互相分离的三个成分:工作记忆、抑制控制和认知转换。在控制了执行功能三成分之间的共同变异之后,工作记忆和抑制控制能显著预测儿童在瑞文推理测验中的成绩。
研究二的结果表明:在控制了家庭变量以及儿童语言、智力和年龄等因素之后,电视和电子游戏的日常使用时间与幼儿执行功能的发展具有正向的关联。电脑的日常使用时间没有表现出与幼儿执行功能发展的显著关系,补充。另外,媒体内容也会对执行功能具有重要影响,表现为:儿童频道以及教育类的节目对儿童执行功能的发展具有正向的关联,但是游戏中的危险成分则不利于儿童执行功能的发展。
电视节目和电子游戏的短时接触能够削弱幼儿随后在执行功能任务中的表现。原因可能在于儿童需要耗费较多认知资源对电视内容和游戏内容进行加工,从而削弱了后续需要同样资源的执行功能任务的成绩。
综上,本研究结果表明短时接触电视节目和日常电视节目观看对儿童执行功能影响的机制可能存在一定的差异,长时影响的效果并非来自短时影响的线性积累。本研究结果发现日常电视节目观看和电子游戏的使用与幼儿执行功能发展的积极联系,并且这种正向的关系是基于一定使用时间和使用内容的限制之上。电子产品是一系列产品的总称,它对于儿童发展的影响是错综复杂的,本研究通过考察多种媒体使用的指标,综合考察日常媒体使用和短时媒体接触对幼儿执行功能的影响,对于理解媒体使用对幼儿认知发展的影响具有一定的理论和实践指导意义。
其他摘要Executive function (EF) refers to a family of top-down mental processes. EF is adaptive, goal-directed behavior that enables individuals to override more automatic or established thoughts and responses. EF is skill essential for cognitive, social, and psychological development. The first 5 years of life play a critical role in the development of executive function. The effects of electronic media on the development of children can't be ignored. The aims of the present studies were to explore the structure of executive function in preschool children, and to examine the effects of different kinds of electronic media use on the development of executive function and its components.
Study 1 used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to explore the structure of executive function in preschool children. The results showed that EF consisted of both a unitary construct and dissociable components. The three components were mental set shifting, working memory, and inhibition of prepotent responses. After controlling the correlation of the three components, both working memory and inhibition can still predict the scores of Chinese combined Raven’s Test.
Study 2 focused on the relationship between media use and the development of executive function in preschool children. The results showed that both the media exposure time and media content were important to understand the media effect on executive function. Specifically, the time spent on television viewing and playing media game was significantly positively related to EF. However the informal computer use was not related to EF. In addition, Children’s channel viewing and educational programs were significantly positively related to EF. On the contrary, the dangerous or violent content in media game was negatively related to EF.
Fast and fantastical TV shows and media game could subsequently diminish EF performance via their influence on attentional and information processing systems. The attentional resources children spent on processing the media contents were also needed in the tasks of executive functions.
In summary, the results of study 2 showed that the mechanism of the long-term effect of media use and the immediate impact of media use on executive function may be different, and the long-term effect was not the simple linear cumulative of the short time effect. The present study showed a positive relation between television viewing and playing media game AND executive function in preschool children, and the positive relation was within viewing limits and media contents. The influence of electronic media as whole set on the development of child was complex. The present study used several indicators of media use to examine both the long-term effect and immediate impact of media use on executive function. The results of the present study were meaningful to understand the effect of media use on child development both on theory and practice.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19746
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
杨晓辉. 幼儿执行功能结构及电子媒体使用对其发展的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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