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视觉功能调控:知觉学习与奖赏、短时程的单眼剥夺
Alternative TitleThe effects of perceptual learning, reward, and short-term monocular deprivationonvisual functions
张盼
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor黄昌兵
2015-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword知觉学习 奖赏 多通道对比度增益控制模型 知觉模板模型单眼剥夺 单眼剥夺
Abstract视觉系统是人类最重要的感觉系统,在人类与外部世界的信息交互中占主导地位,其功能和人们的生活质量息息相关。一方面,人类视觉系统功能会由于创伤、神经系统疾病和老化而显著降低;另一方面,随着社会分工越来越细,很多行业对人们的视功能要求很高。因此,怎样有效地调控视觉功能是一个重要的研究问题。本研究重点关注知觉学习与奖赏、短时程剥夺对成年视觉系统单双眼功能的影响及机制。
研究一中,我们设计了一种多尺度的奖赏结构,考察奖赏与知觉学习两种因素对正常成人视功能的共同调控及其机制。研究一包括三个实验,均采用了“前测-训练-后测”的范式,被试被随机分配到不同水平的奖赏组。实验一考察不同奖赏水平的知觉学习对对比敏感度功能的调控及认知机制。实验二利用外部噪音调制技术考察了奖赏与知觉学习对对比敏感度功能的调控的心理物理机制。实验三考察奖赏与知觉学习对正常成人视功能调控的普遍性。结果发现:(1)伴有金钱奖赏的知觉学习可以显著地提高正常成人视功能可塑性,使其学的更快,学的更好,并且迁移性更强;(2)注意并不足以解释这种调控效应,还必须伴有试次水平(trial by trial)的奖赏;(3)伴有阈下奖赏的知觉学习不如伴有阈上奖赏的知觉学习对视功能的调控效果好;(4)知觉学习与奖赏对视功能的调控是由内部加法噪音降低以及模版调谐优化两种机制共同介导的;(5)知觉学习与奖赏对视功能的调控在游标辨别任务与整体运动方向辨别任务上同样有效,促进了学习速度、学习幅度以及迁移性。
研究二在多通道双眼相互作用的框架下系统的考察短时程的单眼剥夺对单双眼功能影响,探讨单眼信号强度和眼间相互作用改变在各种单双眼视觉功能改变中的作用异同。这部分研究包括三个实验,通过“前测-剥夺-后测”范式分别考察短时程形觉剥夺(实验四)、亮度剥夺(实验五)和对比度剥夺(实验六)对正常成人视功能的调控及其机制。研究二发现,短时程的单眼形觉剥夺、亮度剥夺和对比度剥夺都能显著调控正常成人的单眼与双眼视功能,并且调控效果持续大约15-30分钟。通过多通道对比度增益控制模型分析发现,这种调控效应是由剥夺眼信号强度增强(或减弱)以及来自非剥夺眼的抑制减弱(或增强)两种机制共同介导的。
综合上述:阈上的高奖赏与知觉学习共同作用可通过降低内部加法噪音与优化模板调谐长时程的提高视觉系统可塑性,并且具有一定的普遍性。短时程的单眼剥夺可以显著调控正常成人视功能,由单眼与眼间两种机制介导,其效应时程较短。
Other AbstractVisual system, as one of the mostimportant senory systems,plays a dominant role in ourdaily life. On one hand, visual function could be impairedor declineddue to brain trauma, nervous system disease, or aging; On the other hand, with refinementofthesocialdivision, many industriesask for excellent visul fucntions. How to effectively modulatevisual function is of both theoretical and practical value. The current thesis explored the long-term effectofjoint applicationof reward and perceptual learning (research 1) and the short-termeffect of monocular deprivation (research 2) on visual functions.
Research 1 focused ontheboosting effectofmonetary reward on perceptual learning and its underlying mechanism(s).Reward is a central component for driving incentive-based learning, responding appropriately to external surroundings, and the development of goal-directed behaviors. To maximize learning, we developed a reward structure consisted of trial-by-trial(within block), between-block, and between-days rewards.Experiment 1 examined the effect of perceptual learning with different levels of monetary reward(High, low, and no)on contrast sensitivity function. Experiment 2 applied the external noise method and perceptual templatemodel(PTM) to evaluate the psychophysicalmeachanism(s) of contrast sensitivity improvement. Experiment 3 evaluatedwhether the plasticity induced by perceptual learning with monetary reward was a universalphenomenon that also works in other tasks. We found that: (1) high monetary reward canboost learningeffectsand transfer; (2) the boosted plasticitycannot be explained by attentionrelated to high monetary reward; (3)suprathresholdreward was more effective than subliminal reward; (4) plasticity optimizationisdue to coupled improvements in external noise exclusion and stimulus enhancement; (5)perceptual learning of vernier discrimination and global motion direction discrimination can also be enhancedwith high monetary reward, indicating the rewarding structure we developed in the thesis might be of universal practicability.
Research 2 investigated the modulational effect(s)of short-term monocular pattern (Experiment4), luminance (Experiment5), and contrast (Experiment 6) deprivation on visual functionsand its underlying mechanisms within a multi-pathway contrast-gain control model(MCM). We deperivedthe pattern, luminance,or contrast of the images in the non-dominant eye for 150 minutesand measured several visual functions, e.g.contrast sensitivity, binocular rivalry, binocular phasecombination, binocular contrast combination,and coherent motion detection, before and afterdeprivation. We found that: (1) short-term monocular deprivation increasedcontrast sensitivity in the deprived eye and decreasedcontrast sensitivity inthenon-deprived eye; (2) short-term monocular deprivation strengthenedthe deprived eye in a variety ofbinocular tasks and the effectslastedabout 15-30 minutes; (3) both monocular and interocular mechanismsunderlaythe change of visual function following monocular deprivation.
In summary, we found two main results. First,active perceptual learning with suprathresholdtrial-by-trialand blockedmonetary reward cangreatly improve contrast sensitivity function in both trained and untrained settings through internal additive noise reducation and template optimization, which effect is long-lasting. Second, passive short-term monocular deprivation can enhance visual functions in the deprived eye through increase of signal in the deprived eye and decrease of interocular suppression from the non-deprived eye to the deprived eye.
Subject Area基础心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19763
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张盼. 视觉功能调控:知觉学习与奖赏、短时程的单眼剥夺[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.
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