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情境导向的红色心理效应
其他题名Red Effect of Psychological Functioning in Context
张腾霄
学位类型博士
导师韩布新
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词颜色情境理论 红色心理效应 成就情境 关系情境
摘要颜色心理效应研究已经成为颜色科学和心理学的前沿交叉领域。颜色情境理论(Elliot & Maier, 2012)描述了从颜色感知到影响心理功能的基本过程、特点和影响因素,整合了颜色心理效应领域内已有研究。这些研究为红色心理效应的现象和机制积累了证据。红色心理效应是指在先天遗传和后天环境的共同影响下,红色与心理意义形成的联结会在特定情境中影响个体心理功能。基本过程是:个体知觉到红色时,大脑中与红色相联结的心理意义自动启动并对刺激进行评价,评价结果改变个体的动机水平,最终影响心理功能,包括认知、情绪和行为。此过程在个体无意识情况下发生,类似生物信号功能。红色心理意义从进化的角度看是在先天与后天互相促进下形成的。红色的心理效应可能是先天就存在的生物机制,而后天经验又加强了这种功能。
本研究在颜色情境理论的框架下,针对现有研究的不足和空白,以五项研究探索红色心理效应的五个基本问题,包括成就情境下红色是否具有“攻击”的心理意义,关系情境下红色是否具有“性”的心理意义,红色与心理意义的联结是否受到后天因素的影响,能否在注意层面找到更简单有效的红色心理效应指标,物理情境是否对红色心理效应有影响。研究方法包括观察研究、问卷测量、行为和眼动实验等。
研究1证明现实中和实验室情境下国旗均有红色偏好,并且这种偏好与红色的“攻击”意义高度相关。研究2使用问卷调查发现红色能引起更多“性相关”的心理感受,支持红色的“性”意义。研究3证明股票经纪人的职业经验可反转红色心理效应。研究4从行为和眼动两个角度证明在关系情境下红色心理效应伴随着更多的注意偏向。研究5探索了物理情境因素,发现唇色鲜艳程度影响红色心理效应。五项研究的结果回答了前述科学问题,也从多个方面为颜色情境理论提供了新的支持证据。本研究结果具有一定的理论和实践意义,但也有几点不足。未来研究将以颜色心理效应的产生和作用机制、对实践活动的指导以及研究方法的突破等方面为主要方向。
其他摘要Color effect on psychological functioning has become a frontier of color science and psychology. Color in context theory(Elliot & Maier, 2012)describes the basic process,characteristics and influencing factors of how the color perception impose effect on the psychological functioning, consolidating the existing research in this field.Previous studiesfocused onthe phenomenon and mechanisms of red effecton psychological functioning, achieved anintegration in the theoryframework. Red effect refers to the change of psychological functioning provoked bythe perception of color red, because of the contextual evaluative process induced by the meanings carried by red based on biological proclivities and learned associations.The basic processof red effect is: viewing red gives rise to automatic evaluative processes that result in the change of motivation, and concomitant affect, cognition, and behavior. Because the process occurs in the case of unconscious, red effect is considered as a biological signaling function. Red effect is suspected to be both nature and nurture, because psychological meanings of red are rooted in biology and reinforced by learning.
In the framework of color in context theory, five studiesfocused on red effect were conducted, intending to probe intoseveral important issues within the field. First, whether red links with “aggression” in the achievement context. Second, whether red links with “sex” in relational context. Third, whether red effect could be shaped by learned factors. Fourth, whether attentional bias is a effective indicator for red effect.Fifth, whether physical context could affect redeffect. Multiple methods were employed in the five studies, including observational study, questionnaires, behavior experiments, and eye-tracking experiments.
Study 1 demonstrated the red preference of national flags both in the real and experimental situations, which was highly correlated with the links between red and “aggression”. Study 2 found that red could induce more sex related psychological feelings through a questionnaire survey, providing supportingevidence for the red–sex linking. Instudy 3, experience reversed the red effect among Chinese stockbrokers, which was direct evidencefor learned associations between color and psychological meanings. Study 4 established two different but both effective attentional bias indicators of red effect throughdot-probe paradigm and eye-tracking paradigm, respectively. Study 5 proved the impact of physical contextthat the intensityof lips color affected the red effect in relational context.The results of five studies answeredthe scientific questions raised, provided new evidences for color in context theoryin many aspects, and established the foundation for further researchwith the theoretical and practical significance. Finally, the limitationof this study and directions for futureresearches were discussed.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19768
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张腾霄. 情境导向的红色心理效应[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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