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人类嗅觉:阈限、辨别及时间编码
Alternative TitleHuman Olfaction: Threshold, Discrimination, and Temporal Coding
张肖萌
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor周雯
2013-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword嗅觉阈限 嗅觉辨别 嗅觉时间编码
Abstract嗅觉是人类最古老的感官之一,对人类的生存和进化有重要意义。但是,相比其他感知觉系统,人类对自身嗅觉的功能及相应的加工机制还不是很清楚。因此,本文试图通过三个针对基本嗅觉功能的平行研究,探讨人类嗅觉系统的性质及其背后的生理机制。
研究一:通过测量被试在长期头低位卧床状态下嗅觉阈限的变化来探讨重力对人类嗅觉探测能力的影响。实验结果显示,人类的嗅觉敏感性在模拟失重状态下显著下降,在起床恢复后得以复原。我们推测这种嗅觉探测力的下降可能与长期模拟失重状态下生理变化引起的嗅觉加工的改变有关。
研究二:通过测试不同年龄儿童的嗅觉分辨能力,探讨人类嗅觉分辨力的发展规律。实验结果显示,儿童的嗅觉分辨能力随着年龄增长而增强,并受到气味分子结构相似性的调节。我们推测这种分辨力的增长与儿童嗅觉系统加工的精细化发展有关。
研究三:通过测试被试同侧鼻孔和双侧鼻孔对不同SOA呈现的气味的时间分辨,探究人类嗅觉系统的时间感知能力以及其加工机制。实验结果显示:虽然个体的嗅觉时间分辨力存在一定程度的差异,但整体上被试同侧鼻孔的嗅觉时间分辨力显著高于对侧鼻孔的嗅觉时间分辨力。我们推测这种优势来源于嗅觉系统初级投射的偏侧化。
Other Abstract Human olfaction is phylogenetically one of the oldest senses and is highly conserved in evolution. However, our knowledge of it is still limited as compared with other sensory systems. Here three parallel studies are conducted to probe the sensory properties of human olfactory system.
Study Ⅰ assesses olfactory detection thresholds in men before, during, and after 45days of 6 degrees head-down bed rest. Results show a significant albeit reversible decrease in olfactory sensitivity under simulated microgravity.
Study Ⅱ examines olfactory discriminability in children aged 3 to 6 years with 16 pairs of single-compound odorants that differ in various degrees in structure and smell. Results suggest that odor representations in the olfactory system are fine-tuned in early childhood to allow refined discrimination.
Study Ⅲ Measures participants’ discrimination of two sequentially delivered odorants with varying stimulus onset asynchronies within/between different nostrils, in order to estimate the temporal resolution of human olfaction.
Subject Area基础心理学
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19772
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张肖萌. 人类嗅觉:阈限、辨别及时间编码[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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