|其他题名||Approaching the Good and Avoiding the Bad on Imagination Level|
|关键词||情绪 趋避 想象 趋利避害 内隐|
|其他摘要||Previous studies have shown the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on action level (executing physical approach/avoidance actions) and on perceptual level (perceiving distance change between self and stimuli). In this dissertation, we intended to explore whether approaching the good and avoiding the bad is also true on imagination level and whether this compatible effect depends on explicit valence evaluation.|
In experiments 1 to 7, implicit association test (IAT) was adopted to study the effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on imagination level. Two types of emotional materials (emotional words and expressional faces) were used. Participants were instructed to classify two categories, the valence of the emotional stimuli (words or faces) or the approaching/avoiding tendency of verbs or arrows. Participants were not required to physically execute the approaching/avoidance actions but to imagine the effect of those actions. Reaction times (RTs) were faster when approaching and the positive (avoidance and the negative) were mapped to the same response key, while RTs were slower when approaching and the negative (avoidance and the positive) were mapped to the same response key. These results indicated an effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on imagination level. This compatible effect existed no matter participants were required to imagine they themselves or stimuli moved along the directions as suggested. However, the compatible effect could not be observed when the categorization of approaching and avoidance was not involved with distance change between participants and the stimuli. The compatible effect also emerged when the valences of the emotional words were not irrelevant to the task in which participants were asked to distinguish whether the words referred to people or objects. However, it disappeared when the emotional words were replaced by expressional faces which participants were required to identify their gender.
In experiments 8 and 9, Stroop task was used to investigate whether irrelevant emotional stimuli could have effects on the categorization of approaching/avoidance arrows. Again, the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad only appear when words but not faces were used as irrelevant emotional stimuli.
Taken together, our study demonstrated that
a) the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad could exist on imagination level;
b) The representation of approaching and avoidance in imagination is flexible no matter the action were imagined to be executed by participants or objects;
c) Distance change plays an important role in the representation of approaching and avoidance, even on imagination level.
d) The bidirectional link between emotional valences (positive/negative) and approach/avoidance can be implicit. It is true for emotional word but not for faces.
|张晓雯. 情绪与趋避在想象水平的联结机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.|