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情绪与趋避在想象水平的联结机制
其他题名Approaching the Good and Avoiding the Bad on Imagination Level
张晓雯
学位类型硕士
导师禤宇明
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词情绪 趋避 想象 趋利避害 内隐
摘要以往研究发现,情绪与趋避在动作水平(真实执行趋近或回避的动作)和知觉水平(知觉到自身与刺激的距离变化)均存在双向联结(指趋与利,避与害的联结),即趋利避害的相容效应。本论文试图考察情绪与趋避在想象水平是否也存在双向联结,并考察这种双向联结是否依赖于外显的效价判断。
研究一以情绪词和表情面孔(高兴和厌恶)为实验材料,采用内隐联想测验(IAT)要求被试对情绪与趋避两类概念进行分类反应,直接探讨情绪与趋避在想象水平的双向联结。结果表明,趋与利和避与害两类概念用同一按键归类的反应时显著短于相反条件,证实了趋利避害在想象水平的双向联结。并且趋避的表征是非常灵活的,要求被试想象靠近刺激(以刺激为参照系)或是想象刺激靠近被试自身(以自我为参照系)都与情绪存在双向联结。但当消除趋避表征中的距离因素后,情绪与趋避的联结消失。
研究二采用内隐联想测验的变式和Stroop任务考察情绪与趋避的联结是否依赖于外显的效价判断。我们发现情绪词和表情面孔的结果存在差异。在IAT变式中,对情绪词进行人/物属性分类,不涉及外显的效价判断,仍发现了情绪与趋避的双向联结。在Stroop任务中,我们发现无关的情绪词同样影响趋避箭头的判断,在干扰项是负性情绪词时,对趋近箭头的反应显著快于回避箭头。但以表情面孔为材料的IAT中,被试对面孔进行男/女性别分类,结果却未发现类似的面孔情绪与趋避的联结。在Stroop任务中交互作用不显著,无关的表情面孔不影响趋避箭头的判断。
本研究发现了情绪与趋避在想象水平的双向联结,进一步拓展和补充了在动作水平和知觉水平的研究成果。另外,我们的研究支持了动机定向理论,情绪和趋避的联结是基于激活扩散的自动网络,而不是取决于任务是否涉及外显的效价判断。情绪词和表情面孔的不同结果提示以往研究结果的不一致可能是由于材料在情绪通达、效价等维度存在着差异。
其他摘要Previous studies have shown the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on action level (executing physical approach/avoidance actions) and on perceptual level (perceiving distance change between self and stimuli). In this dissertation, we intended to explore whether approaching the good and avoiding the bad is also true on imagination level and whether this compatible effect depends on explicit valence evaluation.
In experiments 1 to 7, implicit association test (IAT) was adopted to study the effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on imagination level. Two types of emotional materials (emotional words and expressional faces) were used. Participants were instructed to classify two categories, the valence of the emotional stimuli (words or faces) or the approaching/avoiding tendency of verbs or arrows. Participants were not required to physically execute the approaching/avoidance actions but to imagine the effect of those actions. Reaction times (RTs) were faster when approaching and the positive (avoidance and the negative) were mapped to the same response key, while RTs were slower when approaching and the negative (avoidance and the positive) were mapped to the same response key. These results indicated an effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad on imagination level. This compatible effect existed no matter participants were required to imagine they themselves or stimuli moved along the directions as suggested. However, the compatible effect could not be observed when the categorization of approaching and avoidance was not involved with distance change between participants and the stimuli. The compatible effect also emerged when the valences of the emotional words were not irrelevant to the task in which participants were asked to distinguish whether the words referred to people or objects. However, it disappeared when the emotional words were replaced by expressional faces which participants were required to identify their gender.
In experiments 8 and 9, Stroop task was used to investigate whether irrelevant emotional stimuli could have effects on the categorization of approaching/avoidance arrows. Again, the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad only appear when words but not faces were used as irrelevant emotional stimuli.
Taken together, our study demonstrated that
a) the compatible effect of approaching the good and avoiding the bad could exist on imagination level;
b) The representation of approaching and avoidance in imagination is flexible no matter the action were imagined to be executed by participants or objects;
c) Distance change plays an important role in the representation of approaching and avoidance, even on imagination level.
d) The bidirectional link between emotional valences (positive/negative) and approach/avoidance can be implicit. It is true for emotional word but not for faces.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19773
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张晓雯. 情绪与趋避在想象水平的联结机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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