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学龄前儿童认知能力的发展及其影响因素 ——一项三年期纵向研究
其他题名The Development of Preschool Children’s Cognitive Ability in The Preschool Period —— A Longitudinal Study
张耀华
学位类型博士
导师朱莉琪
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词学龄前儿童 认知能力 社会经济地位 教养行为 认知启蒙 结构质量
摘要学龄前儿童的认知能力发展一直以来都是研究者关注的议题。它既是儿童入学准备的要求,也是以后认知发展的基础。本研究以布朗芬布伦纳的生物生态模型为理论框架,基于一项持续三年的三期追踪数据,以六个省区的1483 名学龄前儿童为被试群体,着重考察了家庭中家庭规模、社会经济地位、教养行为和认知启蒙活动以及幼儿园的办学资质、财政支撑和教学资源等结构维度变量对学龄前儿童认知能力发展水平和变化的影响。具体结果如下:
1. 家庭规模,即兄弟姐妹数量在学龄前阶段并没有对学龄前儿童的认知能力产生消极的影响。
2. 家庭社会经济地位对学龄前儿童的认知能力发展具有稳定的预测力,在学龄前阶段已经出现背景效应(即,幼儿园水平的社会经济地位也对儿童的认知发展具有预测力)。
3. 父母教养和认知启蒙活动对学龄前儿童的认知发展都具有显著的预测作用。积极教养行为促进学龄前儿童的认知能力发展;消极教养行为阻碍学龄前儿童的认知能力发展。认知启蒙调节着消极教养与认知能力之间的关系,可以缓冲消极教养对认知能力的破坏作用。
4. 幼儿园结构特征在多个方面预测学龄前儿童的认知能力发展,其中办学资质、财政支撑和教学资源三个指标即使在控制其他变量之后仍显示出稳定的效应。
5. 学习取向能够预测学龄前儿童的认知能力,并且中介着父母教养行为和幼儿园办学资质、教学资源对认知能力发展的效应。
6. 学龄前儿童的认知能力发展轨迹呈现出先快速增长,后增速变缓的曲线形态。7. 家庭的平均受教育程度、父母教养行为以及认知启蒙影响学龄前儿童的认知能力的发展轨迹。其中平均受教育程度和消极教养行为对认知能力的影响还受到年龄变量的调节。
8. 幼儿园结构特征各维度均对学龄前儿童的认知能力发展轨迹具有显著的预测能力,学习取向作为动态中介变量中介着办学资质对学龄前儿童的认知能力发展轨迹的影响。
9. 认知能力和学习取向在时间维度上存在协变关系;自回归交叉滞后模型显示,认知能力对儿童的学习取向的影响高于学习取向对认知能力影响。
其他摘要The development of cognitive ability in preschoolers is the focus of many researchers. It is not only the requirement of school readiness, but also the foundation for the future. According to Urie Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecology model, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine how family factors and preschool structural characteristics predict preschoolers’ cognitive ability and its trajectory. The major findings of the study are as follows:
1. The negative effect of sibship size did not show up in our sample of Chinese preschoolers.
2. The family socioeconomic status had a robust effect on the preschoolers’ cognitive ability in preschoolers, and showed a contextual effect.
3. Parenting and cognitive stimulation could predict preschoolers’ cognitive ability significantly. Positive parenting improved children’s cognitive ability, while negative parenting hindered children’s cognitive ability development. Cognitive stimulation could buffer the destructive effect of negative parenting.
4. Structural features of child care could predict children’s cognitive ability respectively. Among the others, the child care qualification, financial support, and education resources had robust effects, even after controlling for the relevant variables.
5. The approach to learning could predict preschooler’s cognitive ability, and mediate the relationship between parenting, child care qualification, education resources and children’s cognitive ability.
6. The developmental trajectory of preschoolers’ cognitive ability showed a curvilinear shape, with a negative acceleration trend.
7. Family average education, parenting, and cognitive stimulation had significant effects on children’s cognitive ability development, and moderated by age.
8. Structural features of child care could predict the change of preschoolers’ cognitive ability. Additionally, approach to learning mediated the effect of child care qualification on children’s cognitive ability. 
9. Preschoolers’ cognitive ability co-varied with approach to learning over time and had a causal effect on approach to learning.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19774
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
张耀华. 学龄前儿童认知能力的发展及其影响因素 ——一项三年期纵向研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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