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自主动作的时间压缩效应和时间估计的脑机制
其他题名A Study of Temporal Binding Effects Generated by Voluntary Actions and Neural Mechanism of Time Estimation.
赵科
学位类型博士
导师傅小兰
2013-11
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词自主动作 时间压缩效应 时间估计 按键 抬键 尾状核 小脑 标量计时理论
摘要自主动作是有预计性、伴有一定结果的动作,是人类适应环境和改变环境的一种重要手段。自主动作的时间压缩效应是自主动作伴随的时间维度上的重要特征之一,研究时间压缩效应有利于深化对意识、时间知觉、动作意识、因果关系等的理解。本研究系统地探讨了两种自主动作(按键/抬键)的时间压缩效应及其在时间感知阶段的时间进程。另外,考虑到自主动作时间压缩效应本身就是时间加工的一种现象,本研究探讨了时间估计的脑机制。
实验内容分为研究一和研究二两部分,包括实验1-6。研究一探讨自主按键/抬键动作的时间压缩效应及其在时间感知阶段的时间进程。其中,实验1探讨不同时间间隔下自主按键/抬键动作的时间压缩效应;实验2探讨自主按键/抬键动作与视觉延迟刺激匹配的觉察;实验3探讨自主按键/抬键动作时间压缩效应的消退;实验4探讨自主按键/抬键动作的时间压缩效应在时间感知阶段的脑电波差异。研究二探讨时间估计的脑机制。其中,实验5采用功能磁共振成像技术,探讨视觉(实验5a)和听觉(实验5b)刺激的时间估计的脑机制;实验6采用大脑结构与行为学成绩关联手段,探讨视觉(实验6a)和听觉(实验6b)时间估计的脑机制。
本研究得出以下主要结果:
1、与自主抬键动作相比较,自主按键动作产生了更大的时间压缩效应。在动作和延迟刺激之间的时间间隔为150-1050ms内,自主按键动作均产生了时间压缩效应;而自主抬键动作的时间压缩效应仅出现在时间间隔为150ms时。而且,自主按键动作时间压缩效应的消退不易受延迟刺激概率的影响。
2、自主按键动作和抬键动作的时间压缩效应的差异发生在时间感知阶段,ERPs结果显示自主按键动作条件下诱发了波幅更大的前中部P1成分。
3、视觉和听觉时间估计结果支持标量计时理论。在视觉和听觉刺激的时间估计任务中,前辅助运动区、尾状核、小脑等脑区显著激活。同时,不论视觉还是听觉估计时间,小脑体积与时间估计的稳定性成绩成正比,尾状核大小与时间估计的稳定性成绩成反比。
本论文的研究深化了我们对于自主动作时间压缩效应机制、时间加工脑机制的认识。
其他摘要Voluntary action ispredictable and always accompanied by some consequences, which providesusan instrument toadapt and affect environment. Temporal binding effect is an intrinsic feature of voluntary action. It’s worthwhile to explore it which will deepen our understandingofconsciousness, time perception, action awareness causality and etc. In the present study, we have systematicallyexplored the different binding effects and temporal course in the time perception phasefor both voluntary pressing and releasing actions.In addition, as this temporal binding effect was an illusion in time estimation, we have systematically explored the neural mechanism underlyingtime estimation.
This study was divided into two parts, including experiment 1-6. In part 1, Experimentswere conducted to explore the different binding effects and temporal course in the time perception phase for both voluntary pressing and releasing actions. Experiment 1 was aimed to explore the different binding effects induced by voluntary pressing and releasing actions. Experiment 2was aimed to explore the difference of detectability between motor and delayed visual stimuli in both voluntary and releasing conditions. Experiment 3 was aimed to explore the suppression of binding effect in both voluntary pressing and releasing conditions. Experiment 4 was designed to explore the temporal course of different binding effects from voluntary pressing and releasing actions in the time perception stage. Part 2 was aimed to explore possible neural mechanism of the time estimation. Experiment 5 used the fMRI to explore the neural mechanism of time estimation in visual (Experiment 5a) and audio (Experiment 5b) modality. Experiment 6 was aimed to explore the neural mechanism of time estimation through the association between structureof brain and performance in time estimation in both visual (Experiment 6a) and audio modality (Experiment 6b).
The main results in our study as followings:
Firstly, temporal binding effect generated by voluntary pressing action was greater than releasing action. This binding effect coexisted for voluntary pressing and releasing when the time interval between action and delayed consequence ranged from 150 to 1050 ms, whilst it was only existed for voluntary releasing when the time intervalwas equal to 150 ms. In addition, results showed that suppression of this effect for pressing condition is less sensitive to the contingency between action and delayed outcome than for voluntary releasing action.
Secondly, the different binding effects between voluntary pressing and releasing condition were reflected in the time perception phase. ERPs results showed that a larger P1 was elicited in voluntary pressing condition than the releasing condition. 
Thirdly, our results support the scale time theory. Pre-SMA, caudate,and cerebellum were significantly activated in the time estimation task in both visual and audio modality. The results from the association between performance of time estimation and structure of brain indicated that the volume of cerebellum positively correlated with performance of time estimation, whilst volume of caudate was negatively correlated with performance of time estimation.
Overall, these results provide new evidence to our understanding of the mechanism of temporal bindingeffect and neural mechanism of time estimation.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19779
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
赵科. 自主动作的时间压缩效应和时间估计的脑机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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