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音乐概念加工的认知机制
其他题名The Cognitive Mechanisms of Conceptual Processing in Music
周临舒
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词音乐 概念 意义 认知机制 事件相关电位
摘要和语言相似,音乐是意义信息的重要载体。音乐的意义不仅涉及音乐本身内容的表达,而且涉及听者在音乐理解过程中对音乐信息的解释。从信息交流的角度来说,音乐和语言都是人类重要的沟通系统。然而,音乐的语义性在学界是长期争论的话题。近年的语义启动研究发现,和语言相似,音乐能够启动概念的表征。然而,音乐的概念加工及其认知机制在多个方面仍不明确。相关的问题包括,音乐能够表达何种概念?它通过何种手段表达概念?音乐和语言的概念加工是否共享特定的认知和神经机制?基于此,本研究通过3 个电生理实验考察音乐的概念加工及其认知机制。
实验1 和实验2 通过语义启动范式,考察音乐的形象性符号属性是否能够激活空间概念和运动概念的表征,同时考察其相关的加工机制。实验发现,音乐与图片之间的形象性意义联系诱发了N400 效应,表明音乐能够表达相应的形象性概念。这种概念启动不仅依赖于概念的自动扩散激活,且不受任务类型的影响,说明音乐的概念传达是自动的加工过程。在此基础上,实验发现,音乐的声学和结构特征能够预测对形象性概念的表达,且不同概念的表达依赖于不同的音乐特征。为了考察音乐和语言在概念加工方面的关联,实验3 通过跨通道的实验范式,考察音乐和语言中语义性信息的同步加工。实验发现,音乐的概念加工受句子语义合理性的调节。与语义合适的句子相比,当音乐伴随的是语义不合适的句子时,反映音乐概念加工的N400 效应明显变小。同时,音乐预期性能够调节语言语义加工。与符合预期的旋律相比,当句子伴随的是不符合预期的旋律时,反映语言语义加工的N400 效应明显变小。这说明音乐和语言在概念加工方面共享一定的认知神经资源。
以上实验证明,音乐形象性意义的表征能够被自动激活。另外,尽管音乐和语言的表征网络具有区别,但是二者的意义加工所依赖的资源网络可能存在部分共享关系。
其他摘要Music is one of the most important carriers of meaningful information, similar to language. The meaning of music refers to the expression of music per se, as well as the interpretation by individuals during their music appreciation. From the perspective of informational communication, music and language are both important communication systems of human beings. However, the debate about the nature of semantics in music is long lasting in the academia. Recently, some studies found that music, similar to language, is capable of activating the representations of concepts.
Several questions have subsequently arisen with regard to the conceptual processing of music as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. What kind of concepts can music communicate? How can music communicate concepts? Are music and language share certain cognitive and neural mechanisms for conceptual processing? To clarify these questions, the current study investigated the conceptual processing of music and the underlying cognitive mechanisms through three electrophysiological experiments.
By using semantic priming paradigm, the experiment 1 and 2 explored whether iconic extra-musical sign quality is capable of activating the meaningful representations of spatial concepts and movement concepts, as well as the underlying cognitive mechanisms. The results found that the iconic meaningful associations between music and pictures evoked N400 effects, indicating that music is capable of conveying iconic concepts. Moreover, the conceptual priming effects are dependent on the automatic spreading activation of concepts, regardless of the type of implicit tasks, demonstrating that the communication of concepts in music is automatic processing. On this basis, we found that iconic extra-musical expression can well be predicted by certain acoustic and musical structure factors, and that expressions of different types of iconic extra-musical meaning rely on different musical features. To explore the relations of music and language on conceptual processing, the experiment 3 investigated the simultaneous semantic processing of music and language by using cross-modal paradigm. We found that the conceptual processing of music is modulated by the semantic regularity of sentences. Compared with regular sentences, the musical N400 effects reduced clearly when companied with irregular sentences. Moreover, we also found an effect of musical expectancy
on linguistic semantic processing. Compared with expected melodies, the linguistic N400 effects reduced clearly when companied with unexpected melodies. These results indicate that music and language share certain neural and cognitive resources on conceptual processing.
These experiments demonstrate that the representations of iconic extra-musical meaning can be activated automatic. Moreover, although the representation networks are differed between music and language, they may share certain resource networks on meaningful processing.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19787
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周临舒. 音乐概念加工的认知机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
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