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幼儿视、听注意力发展及其影响因素研究
其他题名The Development of Visual Attention and Auditory Attention of Preschools and its Influential Factors
周文娇
学位类型硕士
导师高文斌
2013-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词幼儿 注意力 电子产品 睡眠 游戏
摘要幼儿处在注意力发展的关键期,对儿童注意力的早期测试,可帮助我们理解正常儿童注意力的发展特征规律,从而为注意力困难以及如注意力缺陷多动障碍、自闭症等注意缺陷相关疾病的早期识别和诊断提供依据。而对注意力的发展是否存在视觉通道和听觉通道差异的探索对制定更合适的干预措施以及最优化学习方案具有非常重要的意义。同时,快速的生活节奏、激烈的竞争、以及电子产品的使用改变了人们包括幼儿的生活方式,进而可能造成生理、心理及社会适应等方面的问题。本研究通过持续性操作测验的方法对杭州和北京的131名幼儿的视、听觉注意力分别进行测试,并使用自编问卷对幼儿电子产品接触、睡眠、和日常活动等生活方式进行调查,探索幼儿视、听觉注意力的发展规律,以及幼儿生活方式对其视、听觉注意力的影响。主要研究结果如下:
1. 在视觉注意力上,随年龄增长,视觉正确率提高,反应时变短,正确率变异度减小。完成长度,虚报率和反应时变异度均无显著变化,性别差异无统计学意义。
2. 在听觉注意力上,随年龄增长,听觉完成长度增加,正确率提高,虚报率降低,反应时变短,正确率变异度和反应时变异度均减小。在正确率上,性别与年龄的交互作用显著,3岁时女生正确率高于男生,5岁时男生正确率高于女生。
3. 在注意力的跨通道比较上,整体上,3岁时视觉注意力表现好于听觉, 4-6岁三个年龄段,听觉好于视觉。
4. 适度范围内,电视接触时间越长,幼儿听觉注意力表现越好;电脑接触时间越长,幼儿视觉注意力表现越不好。手机接触时间对幼儿视觉、听觉注意力的影响不同。
5. 幼儿睡眠规律性、睡眠时长以及睡前活动对视、听觉注意力预测作用均不显著。
6. 游戏类型、游戏陪伴者以及身体运动时间分别对幼儿的视觉注意和听觉注意有不同的预测作用。
其他摘要 Preschoolers are at the critical stage of attention development. Early assessment of attention among preschoolers could depict the normal developmental trajectory of attention, which can provide theoretical basis for the early identification and diagnosis of the attention-related diseases, such as attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism and so on. The understanding of the developmental differences on attention skills across visual and auditory modalities would be very helpful for making relative intervention and education strategies. Meanwhile, in an electronic era, high-tech has changed our life style including our children’s life. All these changes in life styles may have great impacts on our children’s physical and psychosocial development. Therefore, the present study was aimed to ascribe and compare the developmental trajectory of visual attention and auditory attention, and to explore the influence of the preschoolers’ lifestyle on visual as well as auditory attention. In the present study, 131 preschoolers aged from 3 through 6 were recruited from Hangzhou and Beijing. Analogous visual continuous performance test and auditory continuous performance test, and life-style questionnaire of preschoolers were applied. The life-style questionnaire covered three aspects of the preschoolers’ life, including the duration of electronic products exposure, sleep, and routine activities.
The main results are as following:
1. On visual CPT, significant age differences were noted on accuracy, reaction time, accuracy variance. The older preschoolers performed better than those younger ones on these varibles. No gender differences were noted on any dependent variables.
2. On auditory CPT, significant age difference were noted on all dependent variables including finished blocks, accuracy, commission, reaction time, accuracy variance and reaction Preschoolers are at the critical stage of attention development. Early assessment of attention among preschoolers could depict the normal developmental trajectory of attention, which can provide theoretical basis for the early identification and diagnosis of the attention-related diseases, such as attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism and so on. The understanding of the developmental differences on attention skills across visual and auditory modalities would be very helpful for making relative intervention and education strategies. Meanwhile, in an electronic era, high-tech has changed our life style including our children’s life. All these changes in life styles may have great impacts on our children’s physical and psychosocial development. Therefore, the present study was aimed to ascribe and compare the developmental trajectory of visual attention and auditory attention, and to explore the influence of the preschoolers’ lifestyle on visual as well as auditory attention. In the present study, 131 preschoolers aged from 3 through 6 were recruited from Hangzhou and Beijing. Analogous visual continuous performance test and auditory continuous performance test, and life-style questionnaire of preschoolers were applied. The life-style questionnaire covered three aspects of the preschoolers’ life, including the duration of electronic products exposure, sleep, and routine activities.
The main results are as following:
1. On visual CPT, significant age differences were noted on accuracy, reaction time, accuracy variance. The older preschoolers performed better than those younger ones on these varibles. No gender differences were noted on any dependent variables.
2. On auditory CPT, significant age difference were noted on all dependent variables including finished blocks, accuracy, commission, reaction time, accuracy variance and reaction
those younger ones. There were significant interaction between gender and age on accuracy. At the age of 3, the accuracy rates was higher among girls, however, at the age of 5, the accuracy rates was higher among boys.
3. Comparing the performance across modality, the overall visual performance of 3-year-old children was better than the overall auditory performance, vice versa among other age groups. Significant interaction between age and modality were found on accuracy and commission. There were significant effects of modality on finished blocks, accuracy variance and reaction time.
4. The duration of TV-watching was negatively correlated with auditory reaction time; the duration of playing on computer was positively correlated with visual reaction time variance; the duration of playing on cell-phone was negatively correlated with visual reaction time variance and positively correlated with auditory accuracy variance. All correlations were at the significant level.
5. No significant correlations were noted between sleeping habits and visual as well as auditory attention performance.
6. The preferred type of play, the usual play partner, and the duration of physical activities were significantly correlated with preschoolers’ visual and auditory attention performance, respectively.
学科领域医学心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19789
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
周文娇. 幼儿视、听注意力发展及其影响因素研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2013.
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