PSYCH OpenIR  > 认知与发展心理学研究室
汉语口语产生中词汇选择与音韵编码的关系
其他题名The Interplay between LemmaSelection and Phonological Encoding in Chinese Speech Production
朱雪冰
学位类型博士
导师张清芳
2014-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词语言产生 词汇选择 音韵编码 图画命名 电生理
摘要语言产生系统涉及到语义/句法、语音与字形等多种信息的激活与即时整合。各个信息作用阶段之间的相互关系是各理论的争论焦点之一:词汇选择与音韵编码之间的关系。在口语产生系统中,词汇选择涉及到从心理词典中选择目标词汇的语义句法信息,音韵编码涉及到提取相应的语音信息。已有研究多数采用印欧语言来考察两者的关系,而甚少采用非字母语言如汉语来加以研究。汉语作为表意语言,具有与字母语言迥然不同的语言特点。本研究利用了汉语中字形与语音可以独立分离的特点,系统地考察了汉语口语产生中各个信息所作用阶段——词汇选择与音韵编码之间的关系,分别从反映信息激活的两大方面加以考察:信息激活的方向(单向与双向性);信息激活的连续性(系列与平行性)。
研究一采用图词干扰范式的行为与脑电指标系统考察了语义与语音信息激活的方向:词汇选择与音韵编码之间的交互作用。已有研究研究大多采用英语或荷兰语来考察这一问题,发现两者之间存在交互作用。但是由于字母语言中字形与语音之间对应较浅,因此在语音相关条件下混合有字形这一因素,而本研究采用汉语将语音因素与字形因素进行分离。实验一至三的结果发现早期的语义干扰效应与较晚的语音促进效应,且两者之间无交互作用,相应的脑电指标发现了一致的结果,在时间窗口250-450ms发现了语义效应,而在时间窗口450-600ms发现了语音效应,两者在时间进程上分离且无交互作用。这些结果表明信息所作用的词汇选择与音韵编码之间的关系是叠加的,信息激活的方向是单向的。
研究二采用多种产生任务的行为与脑电任务系统考察了语义与语音信息激活的连续性:是否存在多个语音节点的激活。实验四采用提高图片命名中非目标项的语义激活程度从而发现在英语中存在语义相关项的语音激活,而在实验五中采用相同的范式并没有发现汉语中的多个语音节点的激活,表明不同的语言特点具有不同的信息激活方式:英语中倾向于平行加工而汉语中倾向于系列加工。实验六采用单词联想任务进一步发现汉语中没有非目标项的语音激活。实验七至九采用了单词翻译任务考察了双语情境下被试在加工英语(L2)中是否存在汉语(L1)非目标项的语音激活。结果发现在行为指标中,双语者在加工L2时没有L1的多个语音节点激活而在脑电指标中发现了多个语音节点的激活:在时间窗口250-600ms发现了分布广泛的语义和语音效应。
综合研究一与研究二的结果,汉语口语产生中词汇选择与音韵编码的关系是两者之间没有交互作用,在一般情境中没有非目标项的语音激活,语义和语音信息系列加工,但是在特定情境和任务中语义和语音信息可以同时激活。基于汉语语言特性与实验结果,我们尝试构建汉语口语词汇产生的模型,希望可以对构建跨语言的统一的语言产生模型有所帮助。
关键词:语言产生词汇选择音韵编码图画命名电生理
其他摘要Speech production involves the timely coordination of various information types such as semantic/syntactic, orthographic and phonological information. How these forms of information relate to each other remains a controversial issue: the relationship between lemma selection and phonological encoding is hotly debated in speech production theories. In the speech production system, lemma selection involves the retrieval of semantic/syntactic information from mental lexicon whereas phonological encoding involves the corresponding phonological processing. Previous studies concerning on the information transmission are largely based on Indo-European languages, which lack empirical evidence from nonalphabetic languages (e.g., Chinese). Chinese, as a logographic script, has distinct linguistic properties, it cannot be assumed the results from alphabetical scripts generalize across all languages. For instance, orthography and phonology are unavoidably confounded in alphabetic languages. However, in Chinese “pure” phonology could be manipulated in which orthographic overlap is avoided. In the present thesis, we investigated the interplay between lemma selection and phonological encoding by exploring (i) the direction of information transmission (one vs. two way); (ii) the continuum of information transmission (serial or cascaded).
In Study 1, the timecourse of semantic and phonological information and the corresponding interaction were investigated using picture-word interference task both in electrophysiological and behavioural measurements. Previous studies have generally shown non-additive effects of semantic and form overlap between pictures and words, which may indicate underlying non-discrete processing stages in lexical retrieval. Unlike in existing studies in alphabetic languages where phonology is confounded with orthography, “pure” phonological distractors were used in which orthographic overlap was avoided. Results showed (i) clear semantic and phonological effects both in behavioral and electrophysiological measurements (250-450ms after picture onset for the semantic effect; 450-600ms for the phonological effect); (ii) no effect was found in naming latencies when distractor and target were semantically and phonologically related, suggesting that both effects cancelled each other out; however, ERP responses were modulated separately in both time windows; (iii) most importantly, a clear dissociation between semantic and phonological effects, with no temporal overlap and no statistical interaction. Overall, the results suggest that in Mandarin spoken production, information is transmitted from semantic to phonological levels in a discrete fashion.
In Study 2, the continuum of information transmission (whether or not there is activation of multiple phonological codes) was investigated using multidisciplinary approaches both in electrophysiological and behavioural measurements. The results of Experiment 4 and 5 showed that multiple phonological nodes were activated mandatorily when the semantic relationship of target and non-target words was enhanced in English whereas no such activation no matter the semantic relatedness between semantic competitors and targets had been boosted or not. Those results tend to indicate that the information flows in different fashion in English and Chinese: Cascaded in English while Discrete in Chinese. Word association task was conducted in Experiment 6 and the result replicated the null effect in phonologically related condition in Chinese. To further investigate the information transmission, Experiment 7-9 explored the phonological activation (in first language) of ignored picture in bilingual context. Results showed (i) clear semantic effects both in behavioral and electrophysiological measurements. Naming latencies were faster in the semantically related condition than in the unrelated condition, ERP responses were modulated in 250-600ms after picture onset for the semantic effect. (ii) no effect was found in naming latencies when context pictures and targets were phonologically related whereas wide scalp activity showed that phonologically related vs. unrelated condition was diverged in 250-600ms after picture onset.
In all, those results in Chinese reveal that there is no interaction between lemma selection and phonological encoding; under normal circumstance, no activation of multiple phonological nodes; semantic and phonological information could be activated in parallel in certain tasks. Based on the existing frameworks and those results, we attempt to postulate a model of Chinese speech production to help with a common theoretical framework across languages.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19792
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
朱雪冰. 汉语口语产生中词汇选择与音韵编码的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2014.
条目包含的文件
文件名称/大小 文献类型 版本类型 开放类型 使用许可
朱雪冰 - 博士学位论文.pdf(2497KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SA浏览 请求全文
个性服务
推荐该条目
保存到收藏夹
查看访问统计
导出为Endnote文件
谷歌学术
谷歌学术中相似的文章
[朱雪冰]的文章
百度学术
百度学术中相似的文章
[朱雪冰]的文章
必应学术
必应学术中相似的文章
[朱雪冰]的文章
相关权益政策
暂无数据
收藏/分享
文件名: 朱雪冰 - 博士学位论文.pdf
格式: Adobe PDF
所有评论 (0)
暂无评论
 

除非特别说明,本系统中所有内容都受版权保护,并保留所有权利。