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情绪面孔与情境的整合:来自无意识和意识层面的证据
Alternative TitleIntegration of Emotional Face and Context: Evidence from Unconscious and Conscious Levels
徐茜
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor蒋毅
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Degree Discipline心理学
Keyword情绪面孔 情境 情绪信息整合 视觉意识 无意识 持续闪烁抑制范式 特质焦虑 无意识学习 点探测范式
Abstract人际交往当中,面部表情可以传达互动者的情绪状态和社会意图,它作为一种重要的社会线索,可以促进人际互动过程。以往对情绪面孔本身的研究已较为详尽,但我们对情绪面孔与社会或情绪情境的整合(尤其是无意识整合)的研究却相对较少。因而本文通过两个研究考察在较为内隐甚至无意识的情况下情绪面孔与情境的相互作用。研究一通过直接操纵情绪面孔的注视方向以及外周图片的情绪探讨了这一问题,由于不同的焦虑水平和意识水平可能会影响情绪信息的处理,所以还考察了特质焦虑和视觉意识在其中的作用。研究二进一步考察情绪面孔受无意识学习这一无意识的既往情境因素的调节机制。
具体而言,研究一发现,无论视觉刺激可见或不可见(通过持续闪烁抑制范式),观察者都可以整合斜视注视方向的情绪面孔与情绪图片情境。有趣的是,高特质焦虑促进了无意识水平对恐惧面孔的整合效应。事件相关电位实验提供了进一步的佐证:枕颞叶P2成分波幅的无意识恐惧面孔整合效应与特质焦虑水平正相关,且显著区分高低焦虑组。意识水平对恐惧或快乐面孔的整合效应则根据不同的任务产生不同的具体表现。
在研究二中,我们结合持续闪烁抑制范式和点探测范式的变式,让被试在磁共振机器中学习不可见的恐惧或中性面孔与随后的任务目标之间的空间位置联系,并在学习前后让被试对可见的恐惧和中性面孔做情绪无关的任务。结果发现:恐惧面孔学习组(即目标总伴随着恐惧面孔的被试)比中性面孔学习组在学习后比学习前,右侧梭状回面孔区(rFFA)对学习面孔(即总被目标跟随的面孔)相比于非学习面孔(即总是不被目标跟随的面孔)的相对表征强度有显著的提高;并且,看学习面孔时,从右侧杏仁核到rFFA的方向性功能连接强度显著高于看非学习面孔时。概言之,研究二发现:我们对意识上恐惧面孔的感知整合了既往对恐惧面孔的无意识学习情境,主要通过杏仁核向梭状回面孔区的反馈式投射而实现。
综上,本文发现情绪面孔既可以与同时呈现的社会或情绪情境相互影响,也可以受到既往的无意识学习情境的影响。本文的研究意义在于强调了我们对情绪面孔的感知不是一个孤立的过程,而是整合了与之相关的社会或情绪情境,无论这种情境是意识上的或无意识的、是同时的或既往的。并且无意识对情绪面孔与同时或既往的情境的整合均表现出恐惧面孔相对于中性或快乐面孔的特异性,这深化了我们对无意识恐惧面孔加工深度与特异性的理解。
Other AbstractDuring our social navigation, facial expression, conveying our social partner’s emotional states and social intentions, is one of crucial types of social cues that facilitate social interaction. Although a substantial amount of research has examined emotional face itself, it remains largely unexplored about the integration of emotional faces and social or emotional contexts, in particular unconsciously. Therefore, the present report set out to probe the interplay between emotional faces and contexts, under implicit or even unconscious circumstances, by two studies. Study 1 addressed this question by manipulating eye gaze direction of emotional faces and the affective meaning of their surrounding picture. Considering that anxiety level and consciousness level would possibly affect the processing of emotional stimuli, we also tested the role of these factors. Study 2 further investigated this issue by examining the modulatory effect on the perception of emotional faces exerted by previous contextual factor, i.e., unconscious learning.
Specifically, Study 1 found that emotional faces with averted gaze directions could be integrated with affective picture context, regardless of whether the stimuli were visible or rendered invisible through the continuous flash suppression paradigm. Interestingly, high trait anxiety boosted the unconscious integration effect for fearful faces. This was corroborated by Event-Related Potential (ERP) experiment, such that the unconscious fear integration effect of temporal-occipital P2 amplitude was positively coupled with trait anxiety, with dissociation between low and high anxious population. The conscious integration effect for either fearful or happy face demonstrated discrepant patterns depending on different tasks.
In Study 2, we combined continuous flash suppression paradigm and modified dot probe paradigm to establish an unconscious learning procedure of the spatial contingency between invisible face cues (either fearful or neutral) and subsequent target probe. Participants performed an emotion-irrelevant task toward visible neutral and fearful faces before and after learning in the fMRI scanner bore in a single session. We found that after learning, the group that learned fearful face demonstrated relatively strengthened BOLD activity in the right fusiform face area (rFFA) and backward connectivity between the right amygdala and rFFA, toward learned (fearful) faces relative to unlearned (neutral) faces, compared with the group who learned neutral faces. In sum, Study 2 demonstrated that our conscious visual perception of fearful faces has integrated previous context, namely unconscious learning of fearful faces, presumably mediated by the backward projection from the amygdala to the fusiform face area.
Taken together, the present study revealed that emotional faces could not only reciprocally influence concurrent social or emotional context, but also be affected by previous unconscious learning context. This sheds light on the notion that the processing of emotional faces is not an encapsulated process, but could be integrated with the relevant social or emotional context, whether it’s conscious or unconscious, and whether it’s concurrent or previous. Moreover, the unconscious integration demonstrates specificity for fearful faces, relative to neutral or happy faces. This deepens our understanding of the extent and specificity of unconscious processing toward fearful faces.
Subject Area心理学(认知神经科学)
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19803
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐茜. 情绪面孔与情境的整合:来自无意识和意识层面的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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