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Alternative TitleAuthenticity and Tactic: aRevisit to Modesty
Abstract谦虚在中西方文化中都具有非常重要的价值。本文聚焦于“真诚性谦虚”和“策略性谦虚”,对谦虚进行全新而系统的阐释。“真诚性谦虚”(Authentic Modesty)基于个体真实的谦虚价值观与信念,是真我的表达;“策略性谦虚”(Tactical Modesty)基于外在情境规范,是情境要求在行为层面的表现。为了探索两种谦虚的不同特点和功能,本文设计了四个研究,包含九个子研究:研究一分别用开放式问卷和等级评价量表对两种谦虚进行原型分析,对“真诚性谦虚”和“策略性谦虚”从概念和特征上进行区分;研究二开发了真诚性谦虚与策略性谦虚量表,并对其进行信效度检验;研究三探索两种谦虚与身心健康的关系,分别从身心健康和适应性等角度探讨“真诚性谦虚”与“策略性谦虚”的不同作用;研究四采用实验的方法探讨不同水平的真诚性谦虚与策略性谦虚在不同情境中如何影响人们的自我评价。结果表明,真诚性谦虚和策略性谦虚具有不同的内容、特征、功能和情境敏感性:真诚性谦虚高的人,不易受到环境的影响,可以通过积极的应对方式去调节负性情绪,具有较高的适应性水平,对身心健康有积极的作用;策略性谦虚高的人,对外在环境更加敏感,更容易受到社会赞许性的影响,在不同情境中采用不同的策略,对负性情绪的应对也更加被动和消极,因而对身心健康的不同方面有不同的作用。这些结果深化了人们对谦虚的理解,为当代社会中的谦虚实践提供了基础性指导。
Other AbstractModesty carries important values across both Eastern and Western cultures. Based on an extensive review on existing modesty accounts and research, two types of modesty ----“authentic modesty” (AM) and “tactical modesty” (TM) ---- were proposed and distinguished. Authentic modesty, as a kind of manifestation of authentic self, is based on personalized modesty values or beliefs. In contrast, tactical modesty, as a response to situational requirements, is independent of one’s personalized values or beliefs. Four studies, consisting of nine sub-studies in total, were conducted to identify the features and functions of authentic modesty and tactic modesty. Study 1 explored prototype of AM and TM. Based on findings of Study 1, an Authentic Modesty and Tactical Modesty Scale (AM&TM Scale) was developed, with desirable reliability and construct validity. Study 3 showed that AM and TM were differentially associated with psychological well-being: AM was a strong predictor of well-being, while the relation between TM and well-being was inconsistent and contingent on specific psychological and physical facets. Study 4 explored how AM and TM moderated self-evaluation in different social contexts (private vs. public), and showed that, for people with high AM, self-evaluation did not vary with situation,while people with high TM adopted different self-expression strategies in different situations. Together, these findings suggest that AM and TM have differential contents, adaptive functions and sensitivities to situational variation: individuals with high authentic modesty goes with a quiet and stable ego, cope with stresses actively, and experience more positive affects and less negative affects; individuals with high tactical modesty are sensitive to environmental changes, cope with stress passively or negatively, and experience more negative affects but less positive affects. This research deepens the understanding of modesty and offers a new theoretical foundation for the practice of modesty in modern society.
Subject Area基础心理学
Keyword谦虚 真诚性谦虚 策略性谦虚 心理健康 文化
Degree Discipline心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院研究生院
Place of Conferral北京
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
施媛媛. 真诚性与策略性:对谦虚的重新审视[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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