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迫近运动的主观时间表征
其他题名Subjective time representations of looming stimuli
王洋
学位类型博士
导师张弢
2016-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词时间知觉 迫近 威胁 自身运动 光流 瞳孔
其他摘要    精确的时间估计对生物体有着重要的生存意义,尤其在面对迫近运动的客体时,对运动时长估计的准确与否,直接关系到能否及时做出躲避危害的行为反应。然而,生物体并不总是能够精确地表征客观时间,以往研究发现,人类对于运动客体的主观时间表征可能存在偏差。目前,我们尚不十分清楚,对于具有威胁性信息的迫近运动,我们的主观时间是如何表征的。本研究围绕这一问题从以下三个方面进行探讨。
    本文第一部分考察携带有威胁信息的迫近运动是否会影响主观时间表征,该部分研究主要发现以下三点结果。首先,我们发现迫近的小球如果将会击中观察者(威胁性迫近运动),其相对未击中小球(中性迫近运动)会引起主观时间压缩的效应。这一压缩效应由威胁信息强度与其运动轨迹共同决定。其次,主观时间表征受到加速度的影响,即加速迫近的物体知觉时间短于匀速迫近物体。这说明空间深度上的加速度变化会影响迫近运动的主观时间表征。最后,主观时间压缩并不影响对迫近物体进行准确的动作反应。我们通过测量被试对迫近篮球的拦截反应时,发现反应时指标并未受到主观时间表征偏差的影响。这说明迫近运动的主观时间表征的偏差可以在运动系统中得到校正,迫近运动的主观时间表征更多的是反映大脑对这一生存相关的刺激的知觉加工,而非运动反应所依赖的时间估计。
    本文第二部分考察自身运动对迫近运动主观时间表征的影响。首先,我们通过光流图样模拟观察者的自身运动,从而考察对自身运动本身的主观时间表征。结果发现,向前的自身运动其主观时间表征要长于静止或向后的自身运动。此外,眼动追踪也能影响自身运动主观时间的表征。之后,我们在自身运动过程中相继呈现迫近运动刺激,结果发现,向前的自身运动能够减弱迫近物体中威胁信息引起的时间压缩。
   本文第三部分以瞳孔这一生理指标从以下两方面考察其与主观时间表征的关系。一是迫近和自身运动会引发怎样的瞳孔反应。我们发现,击中相对于未击中的迫近运动会引起更大的瞳孔收缩,向前的自身运动相对于静止条件,其引起的瞳孔收缩程度更小。二是这种反应与主观时间表征存在何种关系。分析结果表明,击中小球相对未击中小球引起的瞳孔收缩量差异与主观时间压缩量存在正相关。我们推测可能存在一种共同的机制影响主观时间表征和瞳孔对于视觉刺激的反射。
    综上所述,本研究主要发现:携带威胁信息的迫近运动能够引起主观时间压缩并引起更大的瞳孔收缩。这一时间压缩量在模拟向前的自身运动中会减弱。威胁条件和非威胁条件下瞳孔收缩量的差异与观察者主观时间表征的差异存在正相关关系。结合以往的研究,我们推测是注意作为一个内部的机制引起了主观时间表征和瞳孔反应的协变。
;  Accurate estimation of time is critical for survival, especially when we face loom-ing objects, which are often associated with avoiding behaviors.  Although quick and accurate responses are required to avoid potential peril, subjective time perception can be distorted in some circumstances.  In this research, we focused on how threatening information implied by looming motions affect our subjective time perception. We employed following three studies to address this question.
     In the first part, we aimed to investigate the subjective timing of looming objects.We first examined how time perception was affected by a looming ball that conveyed different levels of threat by changing the probability of collision with observer’s head.
We found that hit ball was perceived significantly shorter in duration relative to that in the miss condition. The observed time compression effect could be attributed to the perceived threat information as well as the moving distance of visual stimuli. We fur- ther showed that accelerated approaching stimuli would induce larger subjective tem- poral compression compared to decelerated approaching ones. Finally, we observed that the reaction time of interception to approaching balls was not influenced by the distortion of subjective timing.
     In the second part, we explored the influence of self-motion on subjective timing of looming objects.  We first investigated the subjective duration of self-motion sim- ulated by optic flow.  We found that simulated forward self-motion was experienced longer in duration than backward or static self-motion. Moreover, we asked observers to estimate subjective duration of approaching objects while they were experiencing self-motion. We found that the forward self-motion reduced the temporal compression effect as we observed in last part.
      In the final part, we investigated the relationship between physiological indices, i.e., pupillary response, and subjective timing. We first found that the collision-induced threat caused a larger pupillary constriction at a short latency after stimulus onset while forward self-motion caused a smaller pupillary constriction. We also found that the magnitude of pupillary constriction was positively correlated with the strength of the temporal compression effect when watching approaching balls with different threaten- ing levels, implying that an automatic process of threat would alter the time represen- tations of looming stimuli.
      In sum, our results suggest that approaching objects with threatening informa- tion could compress the subjective timing and cause larger pupillary constriction. The time compression effect would be reduced when observers experienced forward self- motion. The pupillary constriction difference between threatening and non-threatening conditions was positive correlated with the subjective timing difference. According to previous studies, we interpret the observed differences in the pupillary responses to be indicative of attentional allocation of the observers in our experiments.
学科领域认知神经科学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19813
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
王洋. 迫近运动的主观时间表征[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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