|Alternative Title||The Development of Inattentional Blindness in 7-14-year-old Children and its Relationship with Fluid Intelligence and Working memory|
|Thesis Advisor||施建农 ; 张兴利|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||无意视盲 流体智力 工作记忆 视觉工作记忆 智力超常儿童|
|Abstract||当关注于某个物体或事件时，人们往往会对显著的、非预期的其它刺激视而不见，这种现象被称为“无意视盲”。它在现实生活中普遍存在，在应用领域也是造成许多意外事故的主要原因。为了进一步了解儿童阶段个体对这种非预期刺激的觉察规律以及和个体本身认知能力的关系，本研究通过采用经典的动态无意视盲范式——字母撞边任务，首先考察了7-14 岁儿童无意视盲的发展特点，同时，通过对无意视盲与流体智力、工作记忆的相关分析，分别单独考察了无意视盲与这两种认知能力的关系，并且在智力超常儿童群体进一步验证了这些关系，最后，在13-14 岁年龄段儿童中共同考察了流体智力与工作记忆这两种认知能力对无意视盲的预测作用，并且进一步探讨了视觉工作记忆在其中可能存在的作用。获得以下主要结果：|
（2）7-8 岁时，儿童的流体智力对无意视盲具有一定的预测作用，流体智力低的个体更可能产生无意视盲；而9-14 岁期间，是否产生无意视盲与个体的流体智力水平不存在直接关联，该结果在11-12 岁智力超常儿童群体中得到了进一步验证，即该年龄段智力超常儿童的无意视盲率与普通儿童并不存在显著差异。
（3）9-14 岁期间，儿童的无意视盲与工作记忆不存在直接关联，该结果在11-12 岁智力超常儿童群体中得到了进一步验证，即不同工作记忆水平的智力超常儿童的无意视盲率并不存在显著差异。
|Other Abstract||People usually fail to see a distinctive but unexpected object when they focus on some other things. This phenomenon is termed as inattentional blindness (IB). It is a pervasive aspect of visual perception and has been frequently cited as causal in human errors, leading to a wide variety of accidents. The current research investigated the developmental difference of IB and its relationship with cognitive abilities such as fluid intelligence and working memory. First, we studied the developmental difference in 7-to14-year-old children. Then, we studied the relationship between IB and fluid intelligence, working memory in different age groups. In addition, we applied intellectually gifted children to test these relationships. Finally, we used regression to predict IB from fluid intelligence and working memory and explored the role of visual working memory in this prediction. The main results are as following:|
1.There is no significant developmental differences in IB rates among children during 7-to14-year-old. The performance on primary task is not related with IB.
2.Fluid intelligence could significant predict IB in 7-to 8-year-old children. It implied that the individuals with high fluid intelligence are more possibility to avoid IB. However, there is no significant relationship between fluid intelligence and IB in 9-to14-year-old children. This result has been verified in intellectually gifted children, which showed that no significant difference occurred in IB rates between intellectually gifted and average children.
3.There is no significant relationship between working memory and IB in 9-to14-year-old children. This result has been verified in intellectually gifted children, which showed that no significant difference in IB rates occurred between different level of working memory in intellectually gifted children.
4.Fluid intelligence is significant related to working memory in 13-to 14-year-old children. These two cognitive abilities could significant predict IB together, but the predictions of them were opposite.
5.Visual working memory is not related with IB in 13-to 14-year-old children.But visual working memory is significant related with fluid intelligence and working memory. When visual working memory is controlled, the significant relationship between fluid intelligence and working memory no longer existed.
Above all, the mechanism of limited resource can not totally explain the developmental difference on IB. Whether this phenomenon exist developmental difference depends on the attributes of the primary task and unexpected stimuli. In addition, age is an important factor on the relationship between the cognitive abilities and inattentional blindness. During the age from 7 to 14-year-old, there is close relationship between fluid intelligence and inattentional blindness in younger age. However, the interrelationship between fluid intelligence and working memory affect the relationship between them to inattentional blindness. The phenomenon of inattentional blindness affects by top-down and down-top attention meanwhile.Therefore, the relationships between inattentional blindness and cognitive abilities are complex. Moreover, when no difference emerged in primary task, intellectually gifted children would not be more possible to detect unexpected stimuli.
|First Author Affilication||Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences|
|张慧. 7-14岁儿童无意视盲的发展及其与流体智力、工作记忆的关系[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.|
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