|Alternative Title||The effects of writing training on emergence and development of visual word expertise processing in preliterate children|
|Thesis Advisor||翁旭初 ; 李甦|
|Place of Conferral||北京|
|Keyword||学前儿童 汉字 书写经验 训练 文字专家化加工|
|Other Abstract|| Visual word expertise processing is a highly specialized brain function in skilled readers. How such a specialized system formed is still an open question. Investigating the emergence and development of this expertise system in preliterate children provides a direct way to answer such question. Although the development of visual expertise system in the alphabetic scripts has been well documented, there is rare comprehensive evidence for the development the visual word expertise in Chinese children who are learning to read Chinese characters which have distinct visual and linguistic features with alphabetic scripts.|
Because of the complex visual form of Chinese characters, writing is more important for Chinese children’s reading skill acquisition. Moreover, the writing sequence in writing Chinese characters is more crucial for reading learning, especially for children who are at the beginning phase of learning to read. However, to date, little work had been conducted on the impacts of writing experience on the development of word expertise processing. Thus, the current study aims to investigate the influence of short-term character learning experience, especially writing training, on visual word expertise processing in Chinese preschool children. Three training conditions were designed: visual identification training, free writing and sequence writing training.
Thirty-five 5-year-old children with little reading experience were recruited. These children were equally divided into 3 groups with their cognitive abilities matched and received different trainings respectively. The children in Visual Learning group learned characters by merely visually identifying characters without any writing practice. The children in Free Writing group were required to copy characters freely during training without any requirement of writing sequence. The children in Sequence Writing group were required to learn to write with the standard stroke sequence. The whole training period contain 4 training sessions in 4 weeks (100 minutes in total). The learning effects during training process were examined with a serial of behavioral tests. Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed repeatedly at 3 times points: before training, 1 week after training and 2 months after training. The effects of learning experience on the coarse tuning effect of visual word expertise processing (Study1, N170 selectivity between characters and cartoon faces and N170 selectivity between character and line drawing tools), and the fine tuning effect of visual word expertise processing (Study2, N170 selectivity between characters and character-like stimuli) were systematically examined.
The main results showed that through the four weeks of training, character recognition ability increased rapidly in all the participants, indicating that the shore-term trainings are effective. In terms of the coarse visual word expertise effect, after short visual identification training, the N170 amplitude evoked by characters over the right occipital-temporal area was significantly enhanced. And the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged bilaterally rapidly (selectivity for characters over tools). The N170 selectivity for characters did not revealed significant changes after free writing training. After sequence writing training, coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged rapidly in the left hemisphere (selectivity for characters over tools). The rapidly emerged coarse tuning visual word expertise effect after visual learning and sequence writing training vanished after 2 months. In terms of the fine tuning visual word expertise effect, after visual identification training, the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect emerged rapidly in the right hemisphere (selectivity for characters over line-combinations). After free writing training, the coarse tuning visual word expertise effect also emerged rapidly in the right hemisphere (selectivity for characters over line-combinations and radical-combinations). The N170 selectivity for characters did not revealed significant changes after sequence writing training. The rapidly emerged fine tuning visual word expertise effect after visual learning and free writing training vanished after 2 months.
In summary, in Chinese preschool children as young as 5-year-old, short term character learning experience can prompt rapid emergence of visual word expertise effect, suggesting the emergence of visual word expertise processing is consistent across different writing systems. Writing experience can facilitate the emergence of visual word expertise effect, especially the fine tuning visual word expertise effect. The experience of stroke sequence writing prompts the emergence of coarse tuning effect in the left hemisphere.
The current findings provided important empirical evidence for the understanding of the emergence and development of visual word expertise processing, and consistent with the view that the word expertise processing system is formed during the dynamic interaction between experience and brain maturation.
|First Author Affilication||Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences|
|赵佩. 书写经验对学前儿童文字专家化加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2015.|
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