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层级结构对语篇加工的影响
其他题名The influence of hierarchical structure on discourseprocessing
吴莹莹
学位类型博士
导师杨玉芳
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词层级结构 语篇记忆表征 语篇理解 眼动 Eeg
摘要层级结构是人类语言的重要特征,这种层级性体现在各个语言水平上。本次研究采用眼动追踪技术和EEG技术,通过三个实验考察在语篇水平上,层级结构对语篇加工的影响。
实验1采用文本—变化范式,通过操控关键词所在句子的层级考察层级结构对语篇记忆表征的影响。结果发现,在早期加工阶段,只有当关键词处于高层级或同层级时,它的改变才会引起更长的阅读时间。在晚期加工阶段,关键词的改变还是会引起更长的阅读时间,但这只发生在关键词处于高层级的条件下。说明层级结构调节了语篇表征的精细度。信息所处的层级越高,信息的表征越精细。实验2采用学习—再认范式,操纵了学习阶段关键词所在句子的语篇层级,以及测验阶段中再认词汇的类型,进一步考察层级结构对语篇表征精细程度的影响及机制。对于测验阶段,我们只在高层级条件下,而没有在低层级条件下发现旧词比同义词诱发更大的中后部分布的正波(300-430ms)。说明旧词的记忆表征在高层级条件下更精细,表征了字形和语义信息,在低层级条件下表征较不精细,只表征了语义信息。同样,我们只在高层级条件下发现,再认旧词比再认无关词的theta (4-7Hz) 和lower-2 alpha (8-10Hz) 能量更高。说明旧词在高层级条件下的表征更深刻。对于学习阶段我们发现,关键词在高层级比在低层级条件诱发了更大的N400和晚期负波,引起了更多gamma (30-47.5Hz) 能量的增加。说明关键词在高层级条件下吸引了更多注意,获得更深的语义加工。实验3操纵了关键词所在句子的层级,以及关键词的焦点状态,考察了层级结构对语篇在线理解的影响。结果发现,关键词在高层级比在低层级条件诱发了更小的N400,引起的gamma (77.5-92.5Hz)能量更低。说明高层级信息比低层级信息整合更容易,层级的突显性促进了语义整合。另外,在焦点和非焦点条件都发现高层级对语义整合的促进作用,说明层级结构对语篇理解的调节作用较强,对小句内容具有普遍调节作用。
本论文通过三个实验表明,语篇层级结构是一种重要的语言学线索,它突出了语篇中的高层级信息,使高层级信息在加工时获得更多注意资源。在记忆任务下,更多的注意资源使高层级信息获得更深语义加工,得到更精细的记忆表征;在阅读任务下,更多的注意资源促进了高层级信息的整合。
其他摘要Hierarchy is aspecial feature of human language. It can befound at all linguistic levels. In the current three experiments, we use eye tracking and EEG techniques to investigate the influence of hierarchical structure on discourse processing.
In Experiment 1, the text-change paradigm was used. We manipulated the hierarchical level of sentences containing critical words to explore whether hierarchical structure affects memory representation of discourses. The results showed that during the early processing stage, the critical words were read for longer times when they were changed in the hierarchy-high and the linear conditions, but not in the hierarchy-low condition. During the late processing stage, the changed-critical words were again found to induce longer reading times only when they were in the hierarchy-high condition. These results suggest that words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at the higher rather than at the lower level of the discourse hierarchy.In Experiment 2, the learning-recognition paradigm was used. The hierarchical level of sentences containing critical words and the types of words that presented in the test phase were manipulated to explore how and why hierarchical structures influence the grain of memory representation. For the test phase, a larger positivity (300-430ms) with centro-parietal scalp distributionwas found for the old words compared with the synonyms in the high rather than in the low level condition, indicatingmore elaborate memory representation for the old words in the high level condition. Memory representation for the old words in the high level condition included both orthographicand semantic information, whereas memory representation for the old words in the low level condition only included semantic information. Theta (4-7Hz) and lower-2 alpha (8-10Hz) band power were larger for the old compared with the unrelated words inthehigh level condition, suggestingthat words in a discourse have better memory representation when they are located at thehigher level of the discourse hierarchy. For the study phase, the critical words elicited a larger N400 and late negativity, and induced higher gamma (30-47.5Hz) band power for the high compared with the low level condition. These results suggest that the words in the high level condition receivemore attentionand attain deeper processing. In Experiment 3, the hierarchical levels of sentences containing the critical words and the focus status of the critical words were manipulated to explore the influence of hierarchical structure on discourse on-line comprehension. The critical words elicited a smaller N400 and lower gamma(77.5-92.5Hz) band power for the high compared with the low level condition, indicating that hierarchical structure facilitates semantic unification to the information located at the high level. More importantly, the facilitation of unification was found both inthefocus and non-focus conditions, suggesting a robust and general effect of hierarchicalstructureondiscoursecomprehension.
In three experiments, this thesis indicates that global discoursehierarchy is an important linguistic cueshighlighting information located in the high level. Information located in the high level receive more attention resource such that they attain deeper semantic processing during memory task, resulting in more elaborate memory representation. The extra attention resource facilitate semantic unification during discoursecomprehension.
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19832
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
吴莹莹. 层级结构对语篇加工的影响[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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