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汉语婴儿表达性词汇的发展及其影响因素
其他题名The Development of Expressive Vocabulary of Mandarin Infants and Influential Factors
牛杰
学位类型硕士
导师朱莉琪
2012-06
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词汉语婴儿 语言发展 早产儿 影响因素 气质
摘要
为了考察汉语婴儿早期词汇量的变化规律以及相应的影响因素,尤其是早产、气质、一般智能发育水平、社会经济因素等对早期语言发展的影响,本研究采用幼儿沟通与发展问卷(普通话版)(PCDI)、年龄发育进程问卷(ASQ)、父母调查问卷、儿童气质量表等,对18、24、30个月的年龄组被试进行测查,6个月后对18个月组和24个月组被试再次进行PCDI量表测查。本研究试图考察包括早产儿在内的婴儿的早期语言发展,探讨影响和预测儿童语言发展的因素,以期对语言发展敏感期儿童的教育和保健提供理论依据。
本研究的主要结果如下:
1)汉语婴儿(无论早产和足月)在18个月、24个月、30个月时表达性词汇逐渐增多,18个月至24个月的增长速度最快;24个月至30个月增长速度放缓。从表达性词汇的种类看,名词/动名词之和无明显年龄组差异。随着婴儿月龄的增加,动词/名词比率逐渐增高,其中18个月与24个月的动名词比差异显著。
2)对第1次搜集的横向数据中的PCDI总分进行回归分析发现,婴儿在22.3(±5.0)个月时,PCDI总分的性别差异显著,女孩的表达性词汇量显著高于男孩;但是,半年以后的追踪测查发现,到26.4(±3.0)个月时,性别对表达性词汇量的影响已不显著。说明在语言发展的初始,女孩词汇的表达较男孩有明显优势。但随着月龄的增加,在26个月前后男女孩表达性词汇总量已无差别。
3)我们采用分层回归方法分别考察了儿童年龄、性别以及家庭社会经济地位(SES)等因素对儿童第1次和第2次PCDI总分的影响。结果发现,对22.3(±5.0)个月婴儿,只有年龄和性别的影响是显著的;但是,半年之后,父母受教育年限等社会因素与PCDI总分显著相关。该结果提示,在婴儿发展早期,语言发展受到社会经济因素影响不显著,随着月龄增长,社会经济因素的影响开始显现。
4)婴儿18个月、24个月、30个月时PCDI词汇总分与年龄发育进程问卷(ASQ)中的交流呈显著正相关, 24个月时还与人际/社会性显著相关。
其他摘要In order to find out the change pattern of early vocabulary expression for Mandarin infants and relevant influential factors, especially the influences on early language development by factors such as premature labor, infants’ temperament,growth level,and family’s social economic status, this study, by using PCDI, ASQ, parent questionnaire and CTQ examines infants of 18-month-old, 24-month-old and 30-month-old, and re-examines the infants of 18-month-old and 24-month-old through PCDI after 6 months. The study tries to probe the early language development of Mandarin infants( including premature infants) and influential factors, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the education and health care of children in language development-sensitive phase. The results are as follows:
1) Mandarin infants (no matter mature or premature) between 18-month-old and 24-month-old are the fastest vocabulary learners, and between 24-month-old and 30-month-old their expressive vocabulary grows slowly. There is no obvious difference of noun/vocabulary proportion among the three age groups. Their verb/noun proportion increases as they grow, and the increase is clearer between 18-month-olds and 24-month-olds.
2) The regression analysis of the first PCDI data shows that there is an obvious gender difference for 22.3±5.0-month-olds, with girls mastering more vocabulary than boys. The second PCDI data collected after 6 months, however, shows that the
gender influence is no more obvious. It means that by the age of about 26 months old, the initial gap of language development in favor of girls will be filled.
3) By using hierarchical regression approach, the study examines the influence to PCDI result by factors such as infant’s age, gender and family’s social economic status. It turns out that for 22.3±5.0-month-olds, only age and gender matter. After 6 months, SES factors such as parents’ education background become obviously correlated. It means that the influence to language development by SES grows together with infants.
4) The PCDI result is significantly positively correlated with the result in Communication of ASQ among the three age groups. At 24 months PCDI total score also is obviously correlated with the result in Personal-Social of ASQ.
学科领域发展与教育心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19846
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
牛杰. 汉语婴儿表达性词汇的发展及其影响因素[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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