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独立我的自愿移居假说:来自中国的证据
其他题名Voluntary Settlement Hypothesis of self-independent: Evidence from China
陈姗姗
学位类型硕士
导师任孝鹏
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词独立我 自愿移居假说 移民
摘要Markus 和Kitayama 在对日本北海道独立我的研究中提出了自愿移居假说,该假设包含三个层面:(1)对个人财富、自由的追逐是自愿移居的拓荒者(frontier)的主要动机,他们自愿为此做出大量投入和牺牲。因而假定拓荒者们有着高度自主的、独立的、目标取向的心理特征。(2)由于拓荒者艰苦的生存环境,当移居者拥有独立的目标追求、自我管理与自力更生的品质时才能更好的生存下去。(3)一大群目标取向的人聚在一起,必然很快发展出适合其独立我的特征的制度化的规范和信念,并通过这些制度化的规范和信念传递给其它的人和下一代。然后该假设仍有两个问题等待探索:一是现有研究无法说明独立我的代际传递究竟是何时发生的,二是这一假设是否适用于其他地区?本研究尝试来解答这两个问题。
本研究对移民城市深圳和其他地区从内隐与外显两个方面的指标比较其独立我的差异。研究一分别以男性被试和女性被试姓名的最后一个字计算“常见名字百分比”作为独立我的外显测量指标,对深圳某高级中学在校学生(2671 人),广东佛山市某高级中学(3101 人)、湖北荆州市某高级中学(2346 人)和四川巴中市某高级中学(6565 人)进行比较,结果发现深圳被试的独立我高于其他地区的平均水平。进一步分析发现,深圳样本与佛山样本的独立我高于荆州和巴中。
研究二采用框架直线任务(FLT)与自我膨胀任务的独立我的内隐研究范式对深圳高中生被试(106 人)与佛山样本(132 人)进行独立性的差异比较。结果显示两任务中深圳样本的独立我均高于其他城市。
通过对研究一与研究二数据结果的分析与讨论,本研究得出以下结论:(1)深圳被试在独立我的内隐测量任务中表现出更高的独立我特征,支持了自愿移居假设理论。(2)在移民早期“移民文化”与个体独立我的交互影响可能就已经开始发生,第二代移民即在认知层面上表现出了更高的自我独立性特征。(3)以常见名字百分比为测量指标,广东样本比内陆城市样本表现出更高的独立我水平。
其他摘要By Kitayama et al. (2006), the Voluntary Settlement Hypothesis contained three implications: first, voluntary settlement in a frontier is motivated by desires for personal wealth and freedom, and furthermore, it requires a major investment and personal sacrifice for anyone who engages in it; second, frontier life is often harsh, and every endeavor entails substantial risks—both economic and corporeal—and thus, more often than not, mere survival is at stake; third, a region that is composed of a large number of voluntary settlers with goal-oriented mental characteristics will soon develop a culturally shared lay theory of behavior internally motivated and controlled. However, there are two questions about the Hypothesis that still have not received explicit answers. First one is when the intergenerational transmission of independent agency begins? Second one is whether the Voluntary Settlement Hypothesis hold true in case of Chinese cultural background? This research tried to answer these questions that were left unanswered by previous studies.
For that reason, the author conducted two studies with the purpose to examine the residents of Shenzhen. The result of study 1 showed that people in Shenzhen use fewer popular names than other cities. Using the last word of one’s name as the indict of explicit dependent-self, compared Shenzhen high school students (2671), Foshan high school students (3101), Jingzhou high school students (2346) and Bazhong high school students (6565), found that the dependent-self of Shenzhen was higher than other cities.
In study 2, 103 teenagers from Shenzhen and 137 teenagers from Foshan which equals Shenzhen in demographic variables were examined by the method of implicit independent. The measure concludes Framed Line Task (FLT) and Symbolic Self-inflation Task. The results showed that the dependent-self of Shenzhen people was higher than Foshan city.
Based on the results of study 1 and study 2, it suggested Shenzhener is more independent than other subjects without voluntary settlement background. The results provide more evidence to Voluntary Settlement Hypothesis and imply that the independent agency was built up at least on among second-generation immigrants. Implications for culture change and within-culture differences of independency are discussed.
学科领域应用心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19853
专题社会与工程心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陈姗姗. 独立我的自愿移居假说:来自中国的证据[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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