|其他题名||The development of coherence and cohesion in 4 to 7 years old Chinese children’s narratives|
以往儿童的叙事研究较多关注叙事连贯性发展，对叙事衔接性关注较少。本研究旨在同时研究处在叙事能力发展重要时期的4-7岁儿童叙事连贯性和衔接性的发展，探查两者在儿童叙事发展中的关系。研究从北京的一所幼儿园和一所小学里随机选取80名讲普通话的儿童，按年龄分为四组，每组20名。41名女孩，39名男孩。被试根据无字图画书《青蛙，你在哪里？》自发讲述故事。研究者对被试的讲述进行录音，并对每一段录音进行忠实转写。研究者对叙事连贯性和衔接性编码并进行统计分析。 研究结果发现，4-6岁是汉语儿童叙事连贯性发展的快速时期，6岁以后发展速度变缓。6岁以后儿童的叙事更趋于完整。儿童叙事的连贯性表现出性别差异，4岁组女孩的连贯性比男孩好。但随着年龄的增长这种差异不再明显。从衔接性来看，随着年龄的增长，儿童使用因果连接词的数量和第三人称代词使用正确率均在增长。儿童叙事的衔接性也表现出性别差异。4-5岁女孩使用人称代词的数量比同龄男孩多，但6-7岁男女孩使用人称代词的数量接近。叙事连贯性与因果连词和人称代词的使用密切相关。叙事连贯水平越高的儿童，使用因果类连接词和人称代词也越多。叙事连贯性与衔接性的发展是紧密联系的。 本研究是一项以汉语普通话儿童为对象的研究，研究结果弥补了以往对汉语普通话儿童叙事研究的不足，而且还为汉语普通话儿童叙事能力受年龄和性别影响的理论提供了重要的实证数据。
|其他摘要||Background:Mental Time Travel (MTT) is the ability that individuals project themselves to the past and re-experiencing their past experiences, or project themselves to the future to pre-experience the future. This ability is important in daily lives. Studies have shown that schizophrenia patients were impaired in MTT. To date, most studies of MTT were on remembering the past, only a few studies explored imaging the future, and even less studies examined how to improve MTT in patients with schizophrenia.|
Objective: Our study aimed to examine whether MTT in patients with schizophrenia can be improved through the Life Review Therapy, andemotion state and life satisfaction, etc. can be improved as well.
Methods:This study recruited 50 patients with schizophrenia, they were randomly assigned to the training group (SZ-training) and control group (SZ-control), each group consisted 25 patients. The SZ-control group only accepted conventional anti-psychotic medication treatment. On the other hand, the SZ-training group received the Life Review Therapy in addition to conventional anti-psychotic medication treatment. Life Review Therapy consisted of practices of retrieving autobiographical events from specific time period in one's life. The therapy was divided into four weeks, twice a week, and each training session lasted for about an hour. MTT, self-reported emotional status, life satisfaction and basic cognitive functions were assess before and after training for both groups. The event specificity, field perspective, and category of events that participants remembered or imagined were the main index of MTT. At the same time, we also recruited 25 healthy controls who completed all the assessments at baseline to compare the difference between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.
Results:Resultofpre-trainingassessmentshowedthatboth SZ groups showed impairments in remembering the pastand imagining the future compared to healthy controls.SZ patients adopted less field perspective than healthy controls in MTT. Of the content of events generated in MTT, SZ patients showed a lower proportion in categories of relationship and entertainment, and higher proportion in categories of hospital-related, non-classifiable, and no response compared to healthy controls.
Results of post-training assessment showed that the specificity of events generated in MTT in SZ-training group was higher than that of SZ-control group, and no significant difference was found between SZ-training group and healthy control group. The field perspective adopted in SZ-training group was higher than that of the SZ-control group, and no significant difference was found between SZ-training group and healthy control group. The proportion of exploring/entertainment events in SZ-training group was higher than SZ-control group, and no significant difference was found between SZ-training group and healthy control group. The proportion of unclassifiable and no response in the SZ-training group was lower than SZ-control group, and no significant difference was found between SZ-training group and healthy control group.
For self-reported assessments, SZ-training group showed significant improvement in emotional expression. There was no significant improvement in depression or anxiety nor increase in life-satisfaction. Significant improvement was found in semantic memory, and verbal fluency in SZ-training group.
Conclusions:Schizophrenia patients showed impairment in remembering the past and imagining the future, and Life Review Therapy is effective in improving the specificity of MTT and made the content more adaptive. It can also improve patients' emotion expression and basic cognitive functions.
|曹轶娟. 4-7岁儿童叙事连贯性与衔接性的发展[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.|