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汉语短语中词汇的加工机制
其他题名Word Processing in the Chinese Phrase Structure
李玉刚
学位类型硕士
导师李玉刚
2016-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业心理学
关键词短语结构 词汇加工 眼动 转换概率 汉语阅读
摘要阅读中的词汇识别受到多种因素的影响。词汇自身的属性,如字频、词频,正字法信息,本身的语义特征和内容等都会影响到词汇的识别。而词汇的识别还会受到句子中语法结构信息,语义信息的影响。读者会按照偏好的句法加工策略来选择句法结构从而对词汇加工产生影响,也可以根据前面的句法和语义信息的内容对后面的词汇信息产生预测从而加快词汇的加工进程。研究发现,当相邻的两个词存在句法和语义违反的时候,读者的阅读会受到很大的干扰,这些都已经在ERP 指标和眼动指标上有所反映。但是以往的研究使用的目标词和前面的词是处于同一个简单短语结构之下的。而句子中相邻的词汇既可能处于同一个简单短语结构之下,也可能不处于同一个简单短语结构之下。它们的加工有哪些差别呢?短语的加工会促进词汇的加工吗?Li, Rayner 和Cave (2009)年让被试口头报告快速呈现的四个字,结果发现当字处于短语中的时候,得到更好的识别和更快的反应。他们认为短语的加工能够促进词汇的识别。但是以往的研究也发现转换概率影响词汇的识别,而Li, Rayner 和Cave (2009)的实验并没有控制转换概率(一个词与前一个词共同出现的概率)这一变量,因此实验结果并不能完全支持短语的加工能促进词汇的识别这个观点。我们进行了四个实验来探究相邻的两个词是如何影响彼此的加工的。实验1 通过控制转换概率的高低,我们发现处在高转换概率条件下的词汇在首次注视时间,凝视时间和总注视时间上都要显著短于低转换概率条件下的词汇。而实验2 在相同的转换概率下,成短语条件下的词汇在总注视时间和第二遍阅读时间上都要显著长于非成短于条件下的词汇,这说明,在相同转换概率下,成短语的词汇似乎需要更多的认知资源进行语义整合。实验3中,我们增加了短语结构的复杂度,发现了相同的数据模式,而且发现被试对成短语条件下的四个字的凝视时间和总注视时间上都显著长于非成短于条件下的四个字。由于实验2 和实验3 的关键区上存在词类信息的差别,我们在实验4中考察了词类信息对词汇加工的影响,结果并没有发现显著性的差异。而且,在实验3 中,现短语条件和非短语条件下在关键区都有的词(如“双方军队”和“双方必须”中的“双方”)也存在总注视时间和第二遍阅读时间的差异,短语条件比非短语条件的阅读时间更长。总之,我们发现转换概率可以影响早期的词汇识别,处于高转换概率条件下的词汇的加工时间更少;在相同转换概率下,与非短语条件相比,词汇在短语中需要更多的认知资源进行语义整合,而且随着短语的复杂性提高,需要的认知资源越多。而这些发现可以帮助我们更好理解读者对相邻词汇加工的特点,以及短语结构对词汇加工的影响。
其他摘要Word recognition in reading is influenced by many factors, such as word properties (including character frequency, word frequency, orthography), syntactic structure and semantic relationships. Previous studies showed that syntactic or semantic violation between two continuous words can interference reading greatly and it can be reflected on the index of ERP and eye movement. Two continuous words in sentences could form a phrase in some situations, but they cannot make up a phrase. What's the processing difference between these two situations? Can phrase processing promote word recognition in the phrase? Li et al. (2009) asked subjects to report as many characters as they can orally after presenting them with four characters for 80ms. They found that when the four characters can make up a phrase, the speed and accuracy of reporting are better than that when the four characters cannot form a phrase. They concluded that the phrase can promote word recognition. But previous research has found that transitional probability can affect word recognition. Li et al. (2009) did not control the variable. So their results may come from different transitional probabilities between these two conditions. In this study, we conducted four experiments to investigate how the processing of two continuous words affect each other during sentence reading. In Experiment 1, we controlled the transitional probability between the two words, and we found that words were read faster in higher transitional probability condition than in lower transitional probability condition. In Experiment 2, we manipulated whether two continuous words can form a phrase or not, and we carefully chose the two words so that the transitional probabilities between the two words were similar in these two conditions. We found that total reading time and second pass reading time on the second target word were longer in the phrase condition than in the non-phrase condition. In Experiment 3, after increasing the complexity of the phrase, we found the same pattern as in the Experiment 2. We also found total reading time and second pass reading time on the first target words, which are the same in two conditions, were longer in the phrase condition than in the non-phrase condition. In Experiment 4, we excluded the possibility that results of Experiments 2 and 3 were resulted from the syntactic category difference. Based on these findings, we drew two conclusions: 1) when the two pairs of two continuous words have the same transitional probabilities, word recognition in the phrase condition is not facilitated. These findings suggested that the results of Li et al. (2009) may be resulted from different transitional probabilities between the two words. Transitional probability is a kind of bottom to up information, and it can facilitate early stage of lexical access. 2) Compared with non-phrase conditions, words in phrase conditions need more cognitive resources to carry out semantic integration. And the more complex the phrase are, the more resources are needed. These findings help us to understand how Chinese readers processing two continuous word during sentence reading. 
学科领域基础心理学
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/19938
专题认知与发展心理学研究室
作者单位中国科学院心理研究所
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
李玉刚. 汉语短语中词汇的加工机制[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2016.
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